Ginsenoside Rh 2
It is a damaran, protopanaxadiol panaxoside:
R1 = -Glc
R2 = -H
- Gssd. Rh 2 originates for the most part by intestinal microbes from gssd. 20 (S) Rg3, which for the most part is formed in the stomach by hydrolysis of ingested gssd Rb 1 ( Christensen2009gcb ).
- Gssd. Rh 2 restores cellular immunity and NK cell activity after mitomycin damage (Korean research cited in the Choi2008bcp review ).
- According to Park1996gri they have gssd. Rh 2 and Rh 1 ability to reduce NO production in macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharides (mouse, abdominal cavity macrophages). Gssd. Rh 2 also reduced NO production in the same macrophages after interferon-γ stimulation.
- According to Park2003aag has gssd. Rh 2 Effect Against Allergy - inhibited the secretion of β-hexosaminidase stimulated mast cells (rat, leukemic strain RBL-2H3) better than the standard drug chromoglycate, but did not inhibit hyaluronidase activation and did not affect the oxygen radicals.
- Gssd. Rh 2 blocked the binding of AP-1 transcription factor to DNA in lipopolysaccharide-activated or interferon-γ activated mice. Rh 2 thus blocked NOS2 expression and NO production with an IC 50 = 17 μM, as well as expression of TNF-α and IL-1β. Rh 2 further enhanced the expression of IL-10 inhibiting inflammation and facilitated the binding of CREB transcription factor to DNA. There was no Rh 2 effect on the binding of the NF-κB transcription factor. Gssd. Rg 3 had Rh2-like effects, but much weaker. ( Bae2006grr )
- Ginsenoside Rh2 inhibits NMDA receptors in the hippocampus. ( Lee2006srn )