compound K, also the metabolite M1
It is the product of metabolism of protopanaxadiol panaxosides, eg gssd Rb 1 :
R1 = -H
R2 = -Glc
- According to Park2005ieg , Compound K has the ability to suppress the production of NO and prostaglandin E2 in macrophages (RAW264.7) activated lipopolysaccharides by limiting NO synthase 2 (NOS2) and cyclooxygenase 2 (PTGS2) as well as blocking their NF-κB transcription factor.
- In the murine model of inflammation caused by a typical carbohydrate by (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, TPA) compound K suppressed swelling and prevented the induction of inducible NO synthase (NOS2 gene) and cycloxygenase (PTGS2) by blocking the transcription factor NF-κB ( Lee2005ape ) .
- Compound K has the ability to reduce the proliferation and angiogenic activity of human endothelial cells (umbilical vein) normally occurring after their stimulation by fibroblast growth factor (BFGF). Compound K has been found to prevent phosphorylation (and thus activation) of p38 MAP kinase (MAPK11 gene), cellular stress molecules that further phosphorylates transcription factors ATF-2, Mac and MEF2. ( Jeong2010cib )
- In the HUVEC model (human umbilical vein endothelial cells), K had inhibitory effect on vascular smooth muscle proliferation, expression of proliferation-associated molecules (CDK2, cyclin E, CDK4, cyclin D1 ...) and processes associated with vascular inflammation, venous varices veins , hemorrhoids , esophagus varices ) and atherosclerosis ( Park2013cai ).
- Compound K as well as protopanaxatriol control the maturation of immune dendritic cells towards T h 1 (= cytotoxic immune response ). ( Takei2004dcm , Takei2008dcp )
- Compound K, ginsenoside Rg 2 and protopanaxatriol aglycon act inhibitory to the neuronal form of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α3β4) and their effect is selectively affected by interaction with BSA protein (bovine albumin). ( Lee2003deb )
- An in vitro model has been shown to counteract the development of arthritis . ( Choi2013jec )
- The rat model had a protective effect against arthritis. ( Chen2014gmc )