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Diseases of the liver


Liver is a key organ of vertebrate metabolism, overseeing nutrient processing, detoxifying poisons, maintaining the desired level of sugars and fats in the blood, and acting as a blood filter. The liver has its own supply of sugar (glycogen) and serves as the central distribution of sugar (another supply is in the muscles). The liver is exceptional in the bloodstream in that it is included in the so-called portal circulation. The term "gateway" means that the blood that has already passed through the capillaries of the intestines and other parts of the digestive tract (stomach, esophagus) does not return right into the left ventricle but is previously filtered through the liver through a so-called porous vein. The vein vein has a higher pressure than normal veins - it is something between the artery and the vein, and the blood in it is after milky food colored by absorbed fat droplets. The liver acts as a filter that removes these nutrients from the blood, eliminates poisonous poisons, and cleanses waste, including dead cells. The liver is also the first stop of those pathogens that manage to penetrate the intestine into the bloodstream. Under these circumstances, it is clear that liver lobes, not unlike the oil filter in the car, are subject to rapid wear and must be replaced as necessary. Therefore, the liver is equipped with a high regenerative ability: The worn-out lobes die and replaced with new lobes.


There are many poisons and pathogens (for example, hepatitis viruses), for which the liver is the first barrier to be overcome. The presence of these pollutants in the environment represents the chemical and biological burden of the organism. From the theory point of view, adaptogens are substances that increase the body's ability to tolerate the burden. Many adaptogens are therefore hepatoprotective - they strengthen the ability of the liver to deal with chemical and biological stress. In the literature, the hepatoprotective effect is often associated with an anti-inflammatory effect and an antioxidant effect . Many liver diseases have one thing in common, and it's liver inflammation - hepatitis . As a result of the inflammation, the liver joints die and, depending on the liver's regenerative capacity, hepatic insufficiency with hepatitis may or may not occur. That is why the terms hepatitis and jaundice often confuse. The yellow color of the skin, the blemishes and the mucous membranes in the hepatitis cause bile pigments. After successful cure hepatitis will recover and jaundice will disappear.

With their regenerative capacity, the liver is an absolutely amazing and unique internal organ. For example, one is able to survive the surgical removal of up to 70% of the liver, which again reaches its original size, which does not apply to any other internal organ. But even the liver can not stand it. Forcing the liver to frequent regeneration (for example, drunkenness) means talking about liver cancer (hepatoma) . Liver cancer also increases the risk of liver cancer for the same reason. Secondly, as with any healing, liver regeneration leads to the formation of scar tissue (fibrotic). When many forced regeneration produces too much scar tissue in the liver, further regeneration is prevented. This condition is called hardening of the liver - hepatic cirrhosis . Recently, however, citizens of hardened countries (such as Polynesia, who are as fat as the US or the Czech Republic) suffer from steatosis (fattening) of the liver, even if they are not alcoholics. The liver with steatosis is not hardened but fat-filled as for gilts. Liver steatosis is treated in parallel with the morbid obesity usually associated with it.

Hepatoprotective herbs of our tradition

Before the Paracelsian drug era, we even treated ourselves with herbs. Most traditional European liver problems have fallen into oblivion. (Our role was played by the fact that, unlike Chinese doctors, our healers often did not know which diseases are liver and not.) In our pharmacopoeia, however, we have a wonderful category of so-called cholagogs and a similar non-classical stomach (plants good on the stomach). One can also notice the striking tendency of European herbalists to consider any bitter plant good for the liver, which corresponds to a remarkable category of herbs, which are simply called amara ("bitter herbs") - gentian, chicory, granite, dandelion, vata ...

It is strange that today's most worshiped and recommended European hepatoprotective herb - the Marshmallow - is bitter. Silymarin, a mixed extract of non-polar substances from the seeds of this plant, is the effective principle of the ice-cream. There are whole stacks of publications documenting the hepatoprotective effect of silymarin, all of which give an overview of Bahmani2015smb .

Aside from the oyster thrush, we have, as I have already said, dozens of herbs for the liver: basil, medical benedict, bold, teaspoon, chicory, blackcurrant, blackcurrant (fetus and root), garlic, The list of European herbs "on the liver" further includes dubious herbs, whose traditions go somewhere to the dubious doctrine of signatures, for example, the name of the herb, the liver lobster and the lobster lobes have the shape of leaves to remind the liver. In general, our herbalists' views on our hepatoprotective plants differ, and can be summed up with the words "eat the thistle and the hill of vegetables". Ostropestřec is a thistle and when we are with that vegetable, then only from the thistle kingdom can be recommended for hepatic diseases like vegetables artichokes and puppy acridless. Pupa nocturnal is attractive because it may share the healing of the classic Bieberstein puppy adaptogen. Her curative root is used, but I can say from my own experience that her young chops are also very tasty, perhaps even better than artichokes. The thistle also includes the aforementioned medical benedictine, which together with cheese and smile is one of the most effective hepatoprotective herbs of our tradition. Some of our herbalists do not let go of the ribbon and selected deaf-eaten - apple, hawk, mint, lemon and the aforementioned sage.

Hepatoprotective herbs of India and tropics

bitter kutki
bitter kutki

It is no surprise to anyone that when we Europeans do not know which "liver" herb to choose, our herbalists also follow the well-preserved recipes of better-maintained non-traditional systems of traditional medicine such as Ayurveda. Where have we done this in the previous paragraph? Oh, in the deaf. So, in Ajurveda for this family, we have a sacred basil that is not only hepatoprotective, but it also warns us that even our basil has a positive effect on liver deficiencies. However, the most important hepatoprotective herb of Ayurveda is the Himalayan plant " Picrorhiza kurroa ", also known as the Himalayan hawk . But he did not even meet the herbalist Stanislav Sehnnálek, who writes about him ( pdf ), because in the wild almost eliminated the collectors.

The "liver" plant is a truly inexhaustible quantity. To this end, Ilyas2016rhi has added the following: Buddleja officinalis , Coryllis laurifolius , Corydalis saxicola , Egletes viscosa , Gardenia jasminoides , Gossypium herbaceum , Hibiscus sabdariffa , Larrea tridentata , Magnolia officinalis , Mangifera indica , Peamus boldus , Phyllanthus amarus , Pinus maritima , Pinus maritima Rubia cordifolia , Schisandra chinensis and Sida cordifolia . Kumar2012rhh also lists the following herbs: Eclipta alba , Foeniculum vulgare , Greek hake , Garlicia mangostana , Jatropha curcas , Chamomile capitula , Coccinia grandis , Wedella calendulacea , Annona squamosa , Flacourtia indica , Ficus carica , Lepidium sativum , Sargassum polycystum , Solanum blackberries nigrum ), Cassia roxburghii cassia, Aegle marmelos , Pollardia michuacana, Orthosiphon stamineus , Andrographis paniculata , Swertia chirayita , Morinda citrifolia ), Indian Fumaria ( indica ), Common Cassia ( Cassia f istula ), Careya arborea , Indian zederach, medical and turmeric long .

Hepatoprotective herbs TČM

Probably the greatest order in hepatoprotective herbs is from traditional TČM systems. Unlike our herbalist, TČM has captured its knowledge for 2000 years. I do not want to say that TČM does not suffer from superstitions. But today's TCM practitioners are largely in agreement on what herbs prescribe for liver problems. According to the Lam2016hec overview, the main hepatoprotective herbs are TČM :

The same overview ( Lam2016hec ) sets out the two most important standard hepatoprotective combinations of herbs:

  • shiao-cha-hu-tang
  • shi-kuan-ta-buang .

Hepatoprotective effects of the parathynchia

The root of the andrographis herba is widely used in TČM for hepatic and respiratory problems ( Lam2016hec ). The law comes from India, where it is also used to treat liver disorders ( Akbar2011apr ). The legume has a high content of active glycosides, flavonoids (> 20) and diterpenoid lactones (> 20). Andrographisid and neoandrografiolid legumes are just as effective as silymarin from Marigold's whip, while andrographilide powder is a little less effective ( Kapil1993aem ). Overall, however, the flock is just as effective or even more effective as a whipper.

Hepatoprotective effects of ginseng

Ginseng genuine , Japanese ginseng and notoginseng ginseng are widely used in TČM for hepatic diseases ( Lam2016hec ) and its effects are real ( Ng2006pas , Yoshikawa2003snd , Liu1994ech ). Hepatoprotective is also American ginseng ( Xu2017sgl ) and Vietnamese ginseng , whose majority panaxosid majonoside R2 according to Tran2002hem protects the liver. According to Voces1999eas, standardized ginseng extract G115 increases the antioxidant capacity of the liver and heavily protects the liver of rats under physical strain. The hepatoprotective effect of the ginseng saponin mixture is also confirmed by Martinez1984pea and Bak2012ahe in the experimental poisoning of CCl4 , Zhu2015gac by poisoning with cyclophosphamide and Fu2013peg in the trial of obstructive jaundice. The protective effect on the liver was found in ginsenoside Rb 1 , compound K ( Lee2005heg ), gssd. Rg 3 and gssd. Rh 2 ( Lee2005he2 ). Heat treatment of ginseng on red ginseng ( ginseng radix rubra ) does not destroy his hepatoprotective potential ( Yokozawa2007tph ). The effect of red ginseng against the aflatoxin B1 poisoning test is described by Kim2011pek , the effect of fermented ginseng against paracetamol liver poisoning is described by Igami2015hef . According to Lo2011gri gssd. Rb 1 counteracts liver cirrhosis and accelerates remodeling of scar tissue according to Tark2015egr .

Other hepatoprotective herbs TČM

Chinese horseradish, Chinese grape juice , Chinese liquorice , turmeric and standard mixtures of shi-cha-hu-tang herbs (pchin-jin xiao-cha-hu-tang ) and shi-quan- -da-bu tang ) are other important hepatoprotective drugs of TCM ( Lam2016hec ). Inspired by TČM , it is also possible to recommend fulvotomentosides from honeysuckle Lonicera fulvotomentosa , oleanolic acid (for the first time described from the olive tree ), leafy lawn and yellowish jerkin ( Liu1994ech ). On the TČM account can be recommended a pink rosette, whose main active ingredient salidroside dampens the inflammation and protects the liver cells ( Yang2016sao ). Hepatitis is also used in liver disease.

Hepatoprotective fungi

At this point, I must honestly admit that if European herbalists have a problem with their hepatoprotective plants, they do not know about hepatoprotective fungi. (Leda, therefore, I recommend the oak tree, which, according to the teaching about the sign, reminds you of the liver.) I do not know much better either. The Mushroom Empire must necessarily contain an equally rich treasury of medicinal substances as a plant kingdom, but we are still unknown. Therefore, as one example, I give the proven gloss gloss adaptogen glossy gloss . The effect of gloss gloss glossy against liver damage was quantified in a mouse model of liver damage by cadmium. G. lucidum increases 8-fold the level of metallothionein mRNA ( Jin2013peg ), thereby contributing to the healing ability of the liver against heavy metals. The hepatoprotective effect of glans was confirmed in the experimental poisoning of CCl 4 ( Sudheesh2012glp ), benzpyrene ( Lakshmi2006aam ) and also in liver damage by radiation and cytostatics ( Wang2006aae ). The effect of gloss corrosion against cirrhosis after CCl 4 damage is demonstrated by the Kwon2011aaf study. However, unfortunately, I do not have a broader systematic overview of hepatoprotective fungi outside glossy gloss.

| 24.3.2009