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Diseases of the liver

Liver is a key organ of vertebrate metabolism, overseeing nutrient processing, detoxifying poisons, maintaining the desired level of sugars and fat in the blood, and participating. The liver has its own supply of sugar (glycogen) and serves as the central distribution of sugar (another supply is in the muscles). The liver is exceptional in the bloodstream in that it is included in the so-called portal circulation. The term "gateway" means that the blood that has already passed through the capillaries of the intestines and other parts of the digestive tract (stomach, esophagus) does not return directly to the veins and left ventricles but is previously filtered through the liver, vein. The vein vein has a higher pressure than normal veins - it is something between the artery and the vein, and the blood in it is after milky food colored by absorbed fat droplets. The liver acts as a filter that removes these nutrients from the blood, eliminates poisonous poisons, and cleanses waste, including dead cells. The liver is also the first stop of those pathogens that manage to penetrate the intestine into the bloodstream. Under these circumstances, it is clear that liver lobes, not unlike the oil filter in the car, are subject to rapid wear and must be replaced as necessary. Therefore, the liver is equipped with a high regenerative ability: The worn-out lobes die and replaced with new lobes.

There are a large number of poisons and pathogens (hepatitis viruses, etc.) which, from the theoretical and medical point of view, represent so-called stress (stress in the broader sense of the word), more precisely chemical and biological burden . Adaptogens generally act so that the ability to tolerate the burden increases. Hepatoprotective adaptogens then act specifically on the liver - increasing the hepatic adaptation range, increasing the ability of the liver to withstand chemical and biological stress.

Hepatoprotective effect is often found in anti-inflammatory adaptogens and antioxidants . This is because many liver diseases have a common cause - they cause acute or chronic liver inflammation - hepatitis . Inflammation is associated with death (necrosis) of the liver joints, and heavier impairment of liver function. The presence of bile dyes appears externally as hepatitis, which is synonymous with common hepatitis. After cure of inflammation, the liver is regenerated and the jaundice subsides.

With their regenerative capacity, the liver is an absolutely amazing and unique internal organ. For example, one is able to survive the surgical removal of up to 70% of the liver, which again grows to its original size, which can not be said of any other internal organ. But the regenerative ability of the liver is not omnipotent. First, regenerating liver is susceptible to cancer (hepatoma) - hepatitis viruses are so dangerous. Secondly, as with any healing, liver regeneration leads to the formation of scar tissue (fibrotic). When the abdominal regeneration capacity of the liver is abused, it can be hardened - liver cirrhosis .

Hepatoprotective adaptogens according to TČM

Heart disease and infection are thousands, and my goal is not to treat them all, but to point out underestimated medicinal plants that protect the liver and prevent hepatic disease. We call them hepatoprotective adaptogens . In their enumeration, I am mainly inspired by the TCM.

TČM is different from our herbalist by capturing its knowledge for 2000 years as a book in the framework of a comprehensive paravedical system of medicine, which is still operated by millions of physicians today. In TČM, therefore, there is a much greater consensus on what herbs are suitable for liver deficiencies. According to the Lam2016hec report, the main hepatoprotective drugs of the TČM are latin sodas, ginseng root, licorice root, fescue fruit, root of Chinese koptis and turmeric roots. According to the same review, two standard herbal combinations are commonly used in the liver at the TČM : Shiao-cha-hu-tang and Shi-kuan-ta-buang .

Hepatoprotective effects of the parathynchia

Native toothbrush ( andrographis herba ) is one of the main means of TČM for hepatic and respiratory problems ( Lam2016hec ). It comes from India, where it is also used mainly to protect and promote liver function ( Akbar2011apr ). It has a high content of active glycosides, flavonoids (> 20) and diterpenoid lactones (> 20). Comparison of andrographic, andrographiside and neoandrografiolid with silymarin showed that andrographiside and neoandrografiol are as effective as silymarin and andrografiolide is slightly less effective ( Kapil1993aem ).

Hepatoprotective effects of ginseng

Ginseng genuine , Japanese ginseng and ginseng notoginseng have traditionally been used in hepatic diseases ( Lam2016hec ) and have demonstrated hepatoprotective effects ( Ng2006pas , Yoshikawa2003snd , Liu1994ech ). The protective effect on the liver also has American ginseng ( Xu2017sgl ) and Vietnamese ginseng , more precisely its major panaxosid majonoside R2 ( Tran2002hem ). The research of hepatoprotective effects has so far focused mainly on ginseng right.

According to Voces1999eas, the standardized G115 ginseng extract increases the antioxidant capacity of the liver and heavily protects the liver of the rats under physical strain. The hepatoprotective effect of ginseng saponin mixture is also confirmed by Martinez1984pea and Bak2012ahe in the experimental poisoning of CCl4 , Zhu2015gac on cyclophosphamide poisoning and Fu2013peg in experimental obstructive jaundice. The protective effect on the liver was found in ginsenoside Rb 1 , compound K ( Lee2005heg ), gssd. Rg 3 and gssd. Rh 2 ( Lee2005he2 ). Heat treatment of ginseng on red ginseng ( ginseng radix rubra ) does not destroy his hepatoprotective potential ( Yokozawa2007tph ). The effect of red ginseng against the aflatoxin B1 poisoning test is described by Kim2011pek , the effect of fermented ginseng against paracetamol liver poisoning is described by Igami2015hef . According to Lo2011gri gssd. Rb 1 counteracts liver cirrhosis and accelerates remodeling of scar tissue according to Tark2015egr .

Other liver protects adaptogens according to TČM

These are Chinese coptis, Chinese chocolate , Chinese liquorice , turmeric and standard mixtures of shiao-hu-tang (pchin-jin xiao-cha-hu-tang ) and shi-kuan-ta- buang -quan-da-bu-tang ) ( Lam2016hec ). Fulvotomenthosides from honeysuckle Lonicera fulvotomentosa , oleanolic acid (for the first time described from the olive tree ), leafy lawn and jellyfish ( Liu1994ech ) are also effective .

Salidrosid pink rosary has an anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effect on the liver ( Yang2016sao ). Traditionally, cicicum is also used.

Hepatoprotective fungi

It is strange that the plant kingdom, in which we have so many "liver" plants, would not have the same great kingdom of mushrooms as containing important hepatoprotective adaptogens. The mushroom empire is less well-researched, because mushrooms are getting worse, they can not be easily grown and planted, so their traditional knowledge is particularly inadequate in Europe. Let's say at least the model glossy gloss gloss adaptogen model, which has hepatoprotective effects.

Hepatoprotective effect of gloss

The effect against liver damage in gloss gloss was quantified in a mouse model of liver damage by cadmium. G. lucidum has increased 8-fold the production of metallothionein mRNA ( Jin2013peg ), a protein whose job in the liver is to accumulate and detoxify heavy metals. The hepatoprotective effect of glans was found in experimental CCl4 poisoning ( Sudheesh2012glp ), benzpyrene ( Lakshmi2006aam ), and also in radiotherapy and cytostatic damage ( Wang2006aae ). The effect of gloss corrosion against cirrhosis after CCl 4 damage is demonstrated by the Kwon2011aaf study.

Hepatoprotective herbs of European tradition

Before the Paracelsus drugs were massive, we treated hepatic herpes in Europe - we just forgot to forget about them. And maybe we never did as well as the TCM doctors did not know. Anyway, in the European herb tradition we have dubious categories of cholagogs and so-called stomachi (stomach plants). One can notice a striking tendency to consider any bitter plants (the so-called amara - chicory, chicory, peasant, dandelion, vagina ...) good for the liver.

So, besides the well-known and widely recommended Olive Marrow Squirrel that contains silymarin with proven hepatoprotective effects ( Bahmani2015smb ), there are dozens of medicinal plants that are generally health-promoting and potentially effective for the liver: basil, medical benedict, bold, teaspoon, chicory, blackberry, black currant, juniper, ginkgo, kale, juniper, yarrow, crayfish, creeping beetle, yarrow, rape, broke, schisandra, mistletoe, sandy, sandy, sage, peasant and list goes up to species for which it is not clear , to what extent their recommendation goes back to the time of dubious doctrines, such as the liver lizard and the lobster lobster, which may be cured because their leaves resemble the shape of the liver. I do not want to detract from the European herbal tradition. I'm just saying that, unlike TČM, we would have to carry out much more scientific work than we would get those with the greatest hepatoprotective effects. Our herbalists sometimes sum up it with the saying, "Eat a thistle and a hill of vegetables." Of the thistle kingdom, artichokes and acorns are also recommended, of which the root is used, but whose young cattle can be consumed just like artichokes. Even the medical benedict is a thistle and in the above list would (along with the beer and the smile) belong to the more efficient ones. Some herbalists additionally add a ribbon and some deaf-eaten - apple, eggplant, mint, lemon balm and the aforementioned sage. Stanislav Sehnalek also mentions the Indian plant Picrorhiza kurroa ( pdf ), which is not available in our country.

It is worth noting 26941826, which focuses on NAFLD (.

To the above overview Ilyas2016rhi is added Buddleja officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Cistus laurifolius, Corydalis saxicola, Eglets viscosa, Gardenia jasminoides, Gossypium herbaceum, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Larrea tridentata, Magnolia officinalis, Mangifera indica, Peumus boldus, Phyllanthus amarus, Pinus maritima , Rubia cordifolia, Schisandra chinensis and Sida cordifolia. The Kumar2012rhh review also adds Eclipta alba, Foeniculum vulgare, Trigonella foenum graecum, Garcinia mangostana, Jatropha curcas, Chamomile capitula, Coccinia grandis, Wedella calendulacea, Annona squamosa, Flacourtia indica, Ficus carica, Lepidium sativum, Sargassum polycystum, Solanum nigrum, Cassia roxburghii , Orchosiphon stamineus, Andrographis paniculata, Swertia chirata, Phyllanthus amarus, Morinda citrifolia, Fumaria indica, Cassia fistula, Careya arborea, Azadirachta indica, Picrorhiza kurroa, Phylantus emblica and Curcuma longa.

| 24.3.2009