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Diseases of the liver

Liver is a key organ of vertebrate metabolism, overseeing nutrient processing, detoxifying poisons, maintaining the desired level of sugars and fat in the blood, and participating. The liver has its own supply of sugar (glycogen) and serves as a central distribution of sugar (another supply is in the muscles). Liver in the bloodstream is exceptional in that it is included in the so-called portal circulation. The term "gateway" means that the blood that has already passed through the capillaries of the intestines and other parts of the digestive tract (stomach, esophagus) does not return directly to the veins and left ventricles, but is previously filtered through the liver, where the so- Vein. The vein vein has a higher pressure than regular veins - it is something between the artery and the vein, and the blood is usually dyed by absorbed fat droplets after a hearty meal. The liver acts as a filter that removes these nutrients from the blood, eliminates poisonous poisons, and cleanses waste, including dead blood cells. The liver is also the first stop of those pathogens that manage to penetrate the intestine into the blood. Under these circumstances, it is clear that liver lobes, not unlike the oil filter in the car, are subject to rapid wear and must be replaced as necessary. Therefore, the liver is equipped with a high regenerative capacity: The worn-out lobes die and replaced with new lobes.

There are a great number of poisons and pathogens (hepatitis viruses, etc.), which from the theoretical and medical point of view represent so-called burden (stress in the broad sense of the word), more precisely chemical and biological burden . Adaptogens generally act so that the ability to tolerate the burden increases. Hepatoprotective adaptogens then act specifically on the liver - increasing the liver's adaptation range, increasing the ability of the liver to withstand chemical and biological stress.

Hepatoprotective effect is often found in anti-inflammatory adaptogens and antioxidants. This is because many liver diseases have a common effect - they cause acute or chronic liver inflammation - hepatitis . Inflammation is associated with the death (necrosis) of the liver joints and a more severe impairment of functional liver insufficiency occurs. The presence of bile dyes appears externally as hepatitis, which is synonymous with common hepatitis. After cure of inflammation, the liver is regenerated and jaundice subsides.

Their regenerative ability is the liver's absolutely amazing and unique internal organ. One is, for example, able to survive the surgical removal of up to 70% of the liver, which again grows to its original size, which can not be said of any other internal organ. But the regenerative capacity of the liver is not omnipotent. First, regenerating liver is susceptible to cancer (hepatoma) - hepatitis viruses are so dangerous. Secondly, like any healing, liver regeneration leads to the formation of scar tissue (fibrotic). When the abdominal regeneration capacity of the liver is abused, it can be hardened - liver cirrhosis .

Hepatoprotective adaptogens according to TČM

Heart disease and infection are thousands, and my goal is not to treat them all, but to point out underestimated medicinal plants that protect the liver and prevent hepatic disease. We call them hepatoprotective adaptogens . In their enumeration I am mainly inspired by the TCM.

TČM differs from our herbalist by capturing its knowledge for 2000 years in the framework of a comprehensive paravedical system of medicine, which is still operated by millions of physicians today. In TČM there is therefore a much greater consensus on what herbs are suitable for liver deficiencies. According to the Lam2016hec report, the main hepatoprotective drugs of the TCM are latin sodas, ginseng root, licorice root, fescue fruit, root of Chinese koptis and turmeric roots. According to the same survey, two standard herbal combinations are commonly used in the liver at the TČM : Shiao-cha-hu-tang and Shi-kuan-ta-buang .

Hepatoprotective effects of the paratypt

The root of the andrographis herba is one of the main means of TCM for liver and breathing problems ( Lam2016hec ). It comes from India, where it is also used mainly to protect and promote liver function ( Akbar2011apr ). It has a high content of active glycosides, flavonoids (> 20) and diterpenoid lactones (> 20). Comparison of andrographic, andrographiside and neoandrografiolid with silymarin showed that andrographiside and neoandrografiol are as effective as silymarin and andrografiolide is slightly less effective ( Kapil1993aem ).

Hepatoprotective effects of ginseng

Ginseng genuine , Japanese ginseng and ginseng notoginseng have traditionally been used in hepatic diseases ( Lam2016hec ) and have demonstrated hepatoprotective effects ( Ng2006pas , Yoshikawa2003snd , Liu1994ech ). Protective effect on the liver also has American ginseng ( Xu2017sgl ) and Vietnamese ginseng , more precisely its major panaxosid majonoside R2 ( Tran2002hem ). The research of hepatoprotective effects has so far focused mainly on ginseng right.

According to Voces1999eas, the standardized G115 ginseng extract increases the antioxidant capacity of the liver and heavily protects the liver of the rats under physical strain. The hepatoprotective effect of the ginseng saponin mixture is also confirmed by Martinez1984pea and Bak2012ahe in the experimental poisoning of CCl4 , Zhu2015gac on cyclophosphamide poisoning and Fu2013peg in experimental obstructive jaundice. The protective effect on the liver was found in ginsenoside Rb 1 , compound K ( Lee2005heg ), gssd. Rg 3 and gssd. Rh 2 ( Lee2005he2 ). Heat treatment of ginseng on red ginseng ( ginseng radix rubra ) does not destroy his hepatoprotective potential ( Yokozawa2007tph ). The effect of red ginseng against the aflatoxin B1 poisoning test is described by Kim2011pek , the effect of fermented ginseng against paracetamol liver poisoning is described by Igami2015hef . According to Lo2011gri gssd. Rb 1 counteracts liver cirrhosis and accelerates remodeling of scar tissue according to Tark2015egr .

Other liver protects adaptogens according to TČM

These are Chinese coptis, Chinese chocolate , Chinese liquorice , turmeric and standard mixtures of shiao-hu-tang (pinyin xiao-cha-hu-tang ) and shi-kuan-ta- buang -quan-da-bu-tang ) ( Lam2016hec ). Fulvotomenthosides from honeysuckle Lonicera fulvotomentosa , oleanolic acid (for the first time described from the olive tree ), leafy lawn and jellyfish ( Liu1994ech ) are also considered to be effective.

Salidrosid pink rosary has an anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effect on the liver ( Yang2016sao ). Traditionally, cicicum is also used.

Hepatoprotective fungi

It is strange that the plant kingdom, in which we have so many plants "on the liver," would not have had the same great kingdom of mushrooms as important hepatoprotective adaptogens. However, the fungus empire is less explored because mushrooms are getting worse, can not be easily grown and planted, so their traditional knowledge is particularly inadequate in Europe. Let us say at least a model gloss glossy gloss gloss adaptogen, which has hepatoprotective effects.

Hepatoprotective effect of gloss

The effect against hepatic impairment in gloss gloss has been quantified in a mouse model of liver damage by cadmium. G. lucidum has increased 8-fold the production of metallothionein mRNA ( Jin2013peg ), a protein whose task in the liver is to accumulate and detoxify heavy metals. The hepatoprotective effect of glans was found in experimental poisoning of CCl 4 ( Sudheesh2012glp ), benzpyrene ( Lakshmi2006aam ) and also in the case of radiotherapy and cytostatic damage ( Wang2006aae ). The effect of gloss cirrhosis against cirrhosis after CCl 4 damage is experimentally demonstrated by the Kwon2011aaf study.

Hepatoprotective herbs of European tradition

Before the massive arrival of Paracelsus drugs, we also treated hepatic herpes in Europe - we have forgotten more than others . And maybe we've never been as good as TCM doctors. Anyway, in European herb tradition, we have dubious categories of cholagogs and so-called stomachi (stomach plants). One can notice a striking tendency to consider any bitter plants (the so-called amara - chicory, chicory, peasant, dandelion, vagina ...) good for the liver.

So, besides the well-known and widely recommended Siphon Marsh , containing silymarin with proven hepatoprotective effects ( Bahmani2015smb ), there are dozens of medicinal plants that are generally health-promoting and potentially effective for the liver: basil, medical benedict, bold, teaspoon, chicory, blackberry, black Currant, juniper, ginkgo, kale, juniper, yarrow, crayfish, creep, yarrow, rapeseed, broke, schisandra, mistletoe, sandy, sandy, sage, peasant and list goes up to species for which it is not clear , To what extent their recommendation goes back to the time of dubious doctrine of the signatory, such as the livers of the creeper and the vagle of the three-lobes, which may be cured because their leaves resemble the shape of the liver. I do not want to detract from the European herbal tradition. I'm just saying that unlike TČM, we would have to carry out much more scientific work than our plants before we get those with the greatest hepatoprotective effects. Our herbalists sometimes sum up with the saying, "Eat a thistle and a hill of vegetables." Of the thistle kingdom, artichokes are also recommended, and no cuticle boar from which root is used, but whose young capitals can be consumed as artichokes. Even the medical benedict is a thistle and in the above list would (along with the play and the smile) belong to the more effective ones. Some herbalists additionally add a ribbon and some deaf - anemone, anemone, mint, balm and the aforementioned sage. Stanislav Sehnalek also mentions the Indian plant Picrorhiza kurroa ( pdf ), Which is not available in our country.

It is worth noting 26941826, which focuses on NAFLD (.

To the above overview Ilyas2016rhi is added Buddleja officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Cistus laurifolius, Corydalis saxicola, Eglets viscosa, Gardenia jasminoides, Gossypium herbaceum, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Larrea tridentata, Magnolia officinalis, Mangifera indica, Peumus boldus, Phyllanthus amarus, Pinus maritima , Rubia cordifolia, Schisandra chinensis and Sida cordifolia. The Kumar2012rhh review also adds Eclipta alba, Foeniculum vulgare, Trigonella foenum graecum, Garcinia mangostana, Jatropha curcas, Chamomile capitula, Coccinia grandis, Wedella calendulacea, Annona squamosa, Flacourtia indica, Ficus carica, Lepidium sativum, Sargassum polycystum, Solanum nigrum, Cassia roxburghii , Orchosiphon stamineus, Andrographis paniculata, Swertia chirata, Phyllanthus amarus, Morinda citrifolia, Fumaria indica, Cassia fistula, Careya arborea, Azadirachta indica, Picrorhiza kurroa, Phylantus emblica and Curcuma longa.

| 24.3.2009