Protection of brain cells (neurons)
Neuroprotective effect = Protection of brain cells (neurons) from damage and death
Damage to neurons may be caused by stress, alcohol, narcotics, or other poisons. Neuroprotective effect generally means a soothing effect on microglia (which are modified CNS-based macrophages that serve neurons, respond to brain defense and cleanse dead cells).
It turns out that excessive activation of microglia damages the brain. Mental stress , nerve poison , autoimmune processes , stroke and other illnesses have common brain damage by activating microglia. The microglia sensitively responds to brain damage and even to mere mental overload. Microglia plays an immune and cleansing role in the brain. But in situations such as stroke, hangover , or even mental stress from today's lifestyle, the microglie can not adjust its activation to do more harm than good. It is the microglia that is responsible for the painful headache in the hangover and in other situations.
Significant properties of adaptogens include neuroprotective effects
Neuroprotective effects of ginseng
This effect has been extensively investigated in the ginseng model adaptogen ( Zhang2008pgg , Li2007peg , Wu2007deg , Lin2007gra , Liao2002neg ) and has been found with other adaptogens. In all these cases, neuroprotective ginseng-type adaptogens have a chance to help.
Ginseng contains substances that have the ability to calm the microglia and therefore have a positive effect on hangover, traumatic injury (trauma, shaking of the brain), and other conditions mentioned above. The way this panaxoside achieves is also related to the immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of ginseng.
- Wu2007deg shows that gssd. Rb 2 , Rd , Rg 1 and Re have a strong inhibitory effect on the production of TNF-α microglia-activated lipopolysaccharides. Gssd Rg 1 and Re also blocked microglia production of NO. Their inhibitory effect on NF-κB transcription factor and other elements of the stress microglia activation cascade (MAPK1, MAPK3, MAPK8) has been confirmed.
- In experiments on neuronal cultures, it has demonstrated a protective effect by limiting the inflammation reaction of the microglia and by reducing the production of NO and prostaglandin E2 induced by the addition of bacterial lipopolysaccharides ( Lin2007gra ).
- Pxsd. Rb 1 and Rg 1 had a protective effect on spinal neurons in vitro ( Liao2002neg ).
- Bae2006grr illustrates the protective effect of ginseng in ischemic stroke with gssd suppressive effect. Rg 3 and Rh 2 to detrimentally activate the microglia. Lipopolysaccharide-activated or interferon-γ activated mice blocked Rh 2 expression of inducible NO synthase (NOS2 gene) and production of NO with IC 50 = 17 μM by blocking the binding of transcription factor AP-1 to DNA. This also reduced the expression of cycloxygenase 2 (the PTGS2 gene) and the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β. Rh 2 further enhanced the expression of IL-10 inhibiting inflammation and facilitated the binding of CREB transcription factor to DNA. There was no Rh 2 effect on the binding of NF-κB transcription factor. Effect of gssd. Rg 3 was similar to Rh 2 , but much weaker.
- Gssd Rg 2 prevents neuronal death, protects memory and other brain functions in the ischemia / reperfusion model ( Zhang2008pgg ), and protects neurons against glutamate damage ( Li2007peg ) in vitro.
- Ginsenoside Rd prevented damage to dopaminergic neurons due to inflammatory activation of microglia by bacterial lipopolysaccharides. ( Lin2007gra )
- Ginsenoside Rg 3 , which is primarily produced by ginseng on red ginseng , reduced the expression of cytokines in inflammatory activated microglia and inhibited the binding of NF-κB transcription factor to the respective DNA binding sites, resulting in increased survival of neuronal cells in vitro. Ginsenoside Rg 3 also almost completely blocked the expression of NOS2 (iNOS) and increased the expression of MSRA (macrophage scavenger receptor type A). ( Joo2008pin )
- Ginseng polysaccharides protect the brain against autoimmune damage in an experimental mouse model ( Hwang2011app )
- Nie2006pep - ginseng panaxynol and panaxydol protect brain neurons subjected to chemical stress before dying.
Neuroprotective effects of LBP polysaccharides contained in the pulp.
Publications on the neuroprotective effect of the polysaccharides of the sculpture came from a group of scientists at the University of Hong Kong, especially from in vitro experiments, at a time when I was intensively engaged in the subject. Previous treatment with the LBP aqueous extract has preserved rat cortex neurons from the Aβ toxicity (amyloid beta is a protein that appears to be the major constituent of plaque in the brain of Alzheimer's disease ) ( Yu2005nea ). In one of the rare in vivo studies, the effect of LBP on glaucoma caused by high intraocular pressure was investigated. Rats harvested by the LBP extract showed a significant decrease in the number of retinal ganglion neurons. However, the intraocular pressure did not change ( Chan2007nel ). It is virtually certain that over time, the neuroprotective effect of the clergyman will be devoted to other researchers, in which the reader refers to primary sources.
Other neuroprotective adaptogens
Neuroprotective effects have been found in many adapogenic and medicinal plants. From specific publications, I draw attention to:
- Recent reviews of adapogenic and medicinal plants with potential effect on spinal cord injuries ( Zhang2016tet ) and Parkinsonism ( Fu2015pna ) highlight resveratrol, curcumin, tea polyphenols, Ligusticum chuanxiong ligand , flavonoid quercetin present in vegetables and fruit, Pueraria lobata ) and ginseng.
- The list of plants potentially effective against Alzheimer's disease ( Hugel2015bfa ) mentions turmeric, Salvia miltiorrhiza , ginseng, cinnamon, coriander, rosemary, sage and other deworms commonly used as spices.
- Ganoderma lucidum : Specific studies have focused on protective effects on memory and hippocampal neurons ( Zhou2012nep , Aguirremoreno2011glr ) and on dopaminergic neurons ( Ding2010gle ) whose death results in Parkinson's disease .
- Pink rosette counted against autoimmune brain damage ( Zhu2016saa ).
- Baikal Shihak has pronounced neuroprotective effects demonstrated in cerebral ischemia and stroke models ( Gaire2014sbs ). Its active ingredient bajcalin protects against cognitive impairment in diabetes ( Ma2015bad ) and its protective effect on the neurons of the hippocampal memory center ( Lim2016asb ) has been identified.
- Chinese Koptis ( Zhang2009btb ) and other plants TČM.
The plant with these effects must, of course, be much more than I can mention and document in this short paragraph. In addition, there are new reports every year on this topic, so I have to refer you to the primary sources for the latest information. Note, however, that many neuroprotective substances come from spices (curcumin and others) or common foods (resveratrol, quercetin). I would therefore like to draw attention to the book "Spices and Its Medicinal Effects" by the famous prof. Pavel Valíček, where the healing effects of spices are documented more systematically.