What is inflammation
The inflammation is caused by tissue damage and according to classical medicine is characterized by four attributes:
- Calor - heat, increased temperature of the inflamed body part
- Dolor - pain
- Rubella - redness of the inflamed body
- Tumor - swelling
Damaged cells release chemical signaling molecules (histamine and prostaglandin) that lead to the expansion of the capillaries of the inflamed body. These will increase the temperature and redness of the affected part. Inflammatory signaling molecules have two other effects:
- They invoke immune cells (leukocytes) into the inflamed body.
- It causes increased pain in the site of inflammation.
Leukocytes penetrate the inflamed part of the body due to their ability to translate (diapede) through the blood capillary wall. The increase in pain is manifested by a greater perception of painful stimuli (hyperalgesia) and the perception of normally painless stimuli (eg touch) as painful (allodynia).
Chronic inflammation and pain
Pain in inflammation is normally expedient. It engages the inflammation to allow the injured organ to indulge in peace. For example, in the muscles and joints after exertion there is inflammation and pain that tells us how long we have to rest. There is no need to dampen it, it will retreat naturally once the tired muscles and joints regenerate. The opposite of effective pain is ineffective pain in chronic inflammation that persists without progression to cure. Such pain has the importance of inhibiting analgesics.
The effect against inflammation is typical for adaptogens
For the reasons I have dealt with in an article on pain, we have several plants with the effect of chronic inflammation among classical adaptogens. They benefit both from inflammation due to common effort and wear , and chronic and autoimmune inflammations. Chronic inflammation often points to a deeper autoimmune disorder of the immune system. In autoimmune conditions (eg rheumatoid arthritis ), doctors often do not know the advice and adaptogens offer helpful help here.
Ginseng suppresses chronic inflammation and pain
Panaxosides protect the tissue from inflammation and suppress excessive NO production
Several panaxosides have demonstrated their ability to reduce the expression of NO synthase 2 and cyclooxygenase 2 genes and inhibit their NF-κB transcription factor. These include gssd. Rh 1 and Rh 2 ( Park1996gri , Park2003aag ), which also block histamine uptake and the development of an allergic reaction better than the standard medicine dinatrium chromoglycate. It is also gssd. 20 (S) -PPT ( Oh2004sog ), i.e. panaxatriol alone, which is the gssd metabolite. Rh 1 and Rg 1 . Also gssd. Rb 1 and particularly its metabolite Compound K ( Park2005ieg ) strongly reduce the production of NO and prostaglandin E2 in activated macrophages by inhibiting NF-κB transcription factor. I apologize for the reduced clarity of some of the following sentences.
- Reduction of cycloxygenase expression and inducible NO synthase by inhibiting the transcription factor NF-κB. ( Oh2004sog )
- The same effect was demonstrated for compound K in the experimental inflammation induced by carcinogen by the croton oil cholesterol. ( Lee2005ape )
- P. notoginseng had an inhibitory effect on NO synthase, cyclooxygenase 2 and inflammation. ( Jin2007iep )
- Red ginseng works against chronic inflammation of the stomach and its complications - stomach cancer . ( Kim2010pfc )
- Ginsenoside Rb 1 and Compound K were effective in a mouse model of chronic dermatitis. ( Shin2005egr )
- Gssd. Rc acts against gastritis, hepatitis and arthritis. ( Yu2016grf )
- Pseudo-ginsenoside RP1 suppressed inflammation by inhibiting NF-κB. ( Kim2009grg )
- P. notoginseng saponins suppress acute inflammation in the rat model ( Li1999aet )
- Gssd. Rb 1 and in particular its metabolite, compound K , also block NF-κB transcription factor and strongly reduce NOS2 activity and the production of prostaglandin E2 in activated macrophages . ( Park2005ieg )
Although ginseng is anti-inflammatory, it is not immunosuppressive
Ginseng has a complex effect on the immune system. The overall effect of ginseng is rather anti-inflammatory, and apparently ginseng is traditionally contraindicated in acute bacterial diseases. A double-acting effect, so typical for ginseng, however , is manifested in its effects on immunity in general and inducible NO synthase 2 specifically. Ginseng polysaccharides (? 1-? Glucopyranoside and? 2-? 6 fructofuranoside, 5: 2 molar ratio) have been shown to increase the "NOS2" activity. ( Lim2002aep ) Despite its anti-inflammatory effect, ginseng does not appear to have an immunosuppressive effect.
Other adaptogens with anti-inflammatory effect
Anti-inflammatory adapters are many. Here, for the time being, I offer a reference to a clear scientific article on plants with anti-inflammatory effect, Mobasheri2012iih , which mentions a large number of them.
- Genuine ginger from the miraculous gingerbread family ( Zingiberaceae ) has extensive anti-inflammatory effects ( Grzanna2005ghm ).
- Long-eared turmeric also belongs to ginger and has a strong effect against inflammation and pain ( Bright2007cad , Lakhan2015zep ).
- Baikal Shihak has strong anti-inflammatory effects ( Yoon2009aes , Dong2015bil ), its flavonoids block the allergic reaction ( Jung2012aes , Bae2016bic , Shin2014ssb ), act against asthma ( Jang2012sii , Mabalirajan2013bra ) and soothe mast cells ( Hsieh2007bii , Shin2014pes ).
- Traditionally, we used the willow bark ( Vlachojannis2009sre ), whose main active ingredient is known as aspirin .
- Extract from some pine trees also belongs to traditional European medicines. Today Pycnogenol is a patented pycnogenol pine extract that has an effect against cellular stress and inflammation ( Liu2016paa , Kolacek2013enp , Khan2013pmn , Fan2015par and others). Similar properties are also the scabbard extract (essential oil / oil).
- Vitaminic snoring has pronounced anti-inflammatory effects ( Rasool2006irw , Grover2010in ) by inhibiting the transcription factor NF-κB ( Grover2010ina ).
- Lesklokorka gloss has documented anti-inflammatory effects ( Hong2004egl ). Taiwanese research team investigated anti-inflammatory effects in human smooth aortic muscle cells as well as artificially damaged vessels in mice, particularly by reducing ICAM-1 expression and NF-κB transcription factor.
- Chinese angle : anti-inflammatory effects (dopsat).