In some occupations, mental performance is a critical factor, and its maximization is needed by all those who practice these professions. I have already written about mental stress and the effect of adaptogens on him in another article . Here I deal with the methods by which healthy people can increase their mental performance. Sometimes, it's just a relaxing exercise, in which we try to relax and better focus on the mental activity we perform.
Nootropics - substances improving mental performance
Nootropics are defined as intelligence-enhancing or other ways (eg, calming) to improve thinking. Of course, it is more of a desire than a reality, intelligence is too complex to be able to increase in human beings by consuming some substance. Nootropics are, in practice, mostly substances that improve a brain physiology parameter, for example, brain circulation or the availability of neurotransmitters. They do not work for all people, but only for those who have a problem with the physiological parameter - because the brain is perfectly healthy to ensure a sufficient blood flow and the availability of transporters. Other nootropics are derived from psychiatric drugs, in the expectation that what helps weakened individuals can boost the normal brain to higher performance. (A well-known piracetam is something between these two categories.) Other substances, in turn, function as nootropics only with their calming effect - maybe you did not know that common ethanol is forbidden as a doping agent for competitive shooters. Finally, I would like to mention the category of nootropics, which are, from my point of view, the most important biologist, and these are natural adaptogenic nootropics.
Genuine Genuine is a well-studied nootropic
Improving average mental performance (nootropic effect) has been a subject of great interest in ginseng and is documented by many publications. Scientific research on its efficacy is important because the subjectively sensed effect of ginseng on improving thinking and working concentration is difficult to distinguish from the placebo effect. We can build on gossip like nootropics with faith or unbelief, but the fact that there is a lot of studies with which no other herbs can compete with nootropic effects. The nootropic effect of ginseng is explained by three major mechanisms:
- Calming (anxiolytic) action through the GABAergy system .
- Positive influence on memory over the central acetylcholine system .
- Other neurosteroidal effects of panaxoside on the serotonin and dopamine system.
Calming effect through the GABAergy system
Ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, Rc , Re , Rf and Rg1 reversibly bind to GABA receptors ( Kimura1994igw ). Like piracetam, ginseng also stabilizes the activity of GABA neurons . This helps with negatively motivated tasks, as confirmed by animal studies ( Churchill2002npg ). Ginseng, although not euphoric, helps with depression . And removes insomnia .
Improving memory due to the acetylcholine system
Gssd. Rb 1 ( Benishin1991egr ) and Rg1 ( Yamaguchi1995egi ) together with gssd. Re ( Yamaguchi1996egi ) block experimental damage to alkaloid learning by scopolamine. Ginsenosides Rb 1 and Rg 1 Enhance the metabolism of acetylcholine in the hippocampus ( Benishin1992agr , Salim1997grr ). Gssd. Rg 2 , Compound K and protopanaxatriol inhibit specific types of nicotinic cholinergic receptors ( Lee2003deb , Lee2009rlr ).
Other psychic effects of ginseng
Ginseng regulates stress, activates the psyche and removes the psychic feeling of fatigue ( Kim2003iii , Yoshimura1988ace , Kim2003egs ). Gssd. 20 (S) Rg 2 improved learning and memory in rats and restricted experimental disturbance of the psyche ( Ma1993e2c ). The use of ginseng in the context of psychiatric treatment is discussed by Wilkie1994grj . Consideration has also been given to the use of ginseng in Alzheimer's disease , which grossly disturbs thought. I've been wearing high doses of ginseng (up to 30g a day for 2 weeks) for long periods of time in the form of hyperactivity and irritation. However, in the mouse studies, Yoshimura , however, observed a decrease in aggression of panaxoside Rb 1 after pancreatic extract, while panaxoside Rg1 increased aggressivity. (The adverse effects of the content are typical of ginseng.)
Clinical studies confirming the nootropic effects of ginseng
- Standardized ginseng extract G115 improved work memory and subjective mental well-being of healthy young probands (30 volunteers, 8 days 200 and 400 mg extract, Reay2010pgg , tests from this and a few other publications mentioned here, manufactured by G115, Boehringer Ingelheim).
- Ginseng Korea Insam and G115 extract improved attention, intelligence ( numeracy , logic) and response time (16 probands, Angelo1986dpc ).
- In young probands, ginseng improved performance in a ten-minute stress test ( Reay2006epg )
- The combination of ginseng and ginkgo biloba improved mental performance in detailed psychosocials ( Kennedy2002mcm ).
- Kallus2005apf is a scientific review of the aging of cognitive functions , and finds a positive effect on caffeine and ginseng extract G115. ( I'm more cautious about caffeine .)
- Coleman2003epg is an overview of the positive effects of P. ginseng on quality of life, focusing on Pharmaton, Ginsana, and so on.
- The nootropic effects of the herbal combination with ginseng and cloning were investigated by Nishiyama1995bes and Nishiyama1996hps , which showed improvement in learning and memory.
- The standard TKM combination of Yen Yen Gans Ginseng and Polygala tenuifolia had an anti-depressant and nootropic effect on the animal model. ( Sun2013aem )
Another plant nootropic
In addition to ginseng, the nootropic effect is often attributed to ginkgo biloba , pink rosary , Chinese schizander and, to varying degrees, other adaptogens. Baikal Shihak is slightly sedative and has protective effects on hippocampal neurons ( Lim2016asb ). Salmon and other deaf, such as oregano, deserve attention. The traditional Indian (Ayurvedic) nootropic is the Bakopa microbes called brahmi ( Calabrese2008esb ).
As a bead I would say that probably the most commonly used nootropic is nicotine, the nootropic effects of which my ex-leader, neurobiologist and the big smoker himself like to point to. Nicotine acts on central nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Although nicotine is not an adaptogen (its therapeutic index is too low), it improves concentration in small doses, and temporarily suppresses symptoms of Parkinson's disease in the elderly.