PPAR receptors are gene expression regulators that play a key role in glucose and lipid metabolism.
The abbreviation PPAR refers to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ( peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ). Despite the complex name, PPAR receptors are common, unusual, abundant in all cells. They have the everyday tasks of regulating sugar and fat metabolism. They affect the effectiveness of insulin, and their agonists (thiazolidinediones) are used against diabetes.
Three subtypes encoded by three different genes: PPARα, PPARβ and PPARγ, are distinguished in PPAR receptors.
Adaptogens acting on PPAR receptors
In the context of adaptogens, PPAR receptors are interesting because they play a role in the development of the civilization diseases against which adaptogens work ( diabetes , obesity , atherosclerosis , metabolic syndrome, etc.). PPAR receptors are the site of action of some active ingredients of adaptogens and medicinal plants.
The effect of ginseng on PPAR receptors
The effects of ginseng on PPAR receptors have been paying attention since the early 21st century ( Chung2001cbw , Yoon2003ppr ). Its specific anti-diabetic and atherosclerotic effects are often explained by its action on PPAR receptors. Panaxosides increase the expression of PPAR-γ mRNA and other PPAR-γ pathways (adiponectin, IRS-1, adipocyte protein 2 , etc.) This was demonstrated in vitro ( Gao2013grr for ginsenoside Re ) and clinically ( Ni2010sgp for ginsenoside Rg1 and Rb 1 , measurements were effect on monocytes in 122 diabetic patients). Similar trials have been reported today, and the effect on PPAR receptors was also found in ginsenoside Rf ( Lee2006grc , PPAR-α in mice), protopanaxatriol ginks ( Han2006g2p ) and ginsenoside Rg3 ( Han2006g2p ) in addition to the above panaxosides. Interestingly, the chiral enantiomers of ginsenoside Rg3 do not act on the PPAR-γ receptor as well: Epimer 20 (S) -Rg3 has more than 10x greater affinity than 20 (R) -Rg3 ( Kwok2012sg2 ).
The gloss-gloss effect on the PPAR receptors
Other natural drugs acting on PPAR receptors
All adaptogens with a traditionally known (or newly diagnosed) anti-diabetic effect are suspected of being able to act on PPAR receptors. This is the case with the Bajkalic Shihak (traditional anti-diabetes), whose flavonoid vogonin acts on PPARα ( Zhang2015wso ) and also on bitter Momordia , whose oil acts on PPARγ ( Khan2007bgm ). Systematic Investigation of Multiple Medicinal Plants ( Rozema2012sec ) revealed an effect on PPAR-α and PPARγ receptors in Pink Albiga ( Albizia julibrissin ), Arisema ( Arisaema sp.), Cnidium monnieri , Pinellia ternata ( Lilium sp.) And lofatera ( Lophatherum gracile ). The effect of PPAR-α is only on PPAR-α in lily ( Lilium sp.) And lofatera ( Lophatherum gracile ).