Radioactivity is a phenomenon where the atomic nuclei in the fission or other nuclear reactions emit radiation. Isotopes susceptible to radioactive decay are called radionuclides. Radioactive radiation can in practice be divided into electromagnetic (X-ray, gamma) and particle (alpha, beta, neutrons).
- A radiation - actually the nucleus of the helium (two protons and neutrons) without the electron shell. It is already a thin film and the skin layer is already in the body. It is very dangerous, however, that radiation occurs when the radioactive isotope is absorbed into the body by irradiation and radiates cells close up.
- Radiation β - fast moving electrons. It is a bit more pronounced than a radiation, but dangerous especially when a β-radioactive nuclide gets from the infested environment inside the body.
- C radiation often (but not always) accompanies nuclear and α radiation reactions. There are also pure y-emitters. The penetration of gamma rays is given by their enormous energy, otherwise they are just photons.
- Neutron Radiation - Neutron flow from a radioactive source. Neutrons pass through the matter almost without any hindrance and stop them, popularly speaking, only the frontal impact on the atomic nucleus. Though solid matter may appear dense enough, it is the finest quantum foam made up of emptiness on a microscopic scale. Atomic nuclei are incredibly small. The collision of a neutron with the nucleus of an atom during mass transit (such as a block of iron) is even less likely than an airplane disaster caused by the air collision of two planes. Neutrons in the mass fly many meters before finally seizing somewhere. Neutron radiation is odd in that when the kernel collides finally, the neutron can get stuck in it and turn it into a radioactive isotope. This is why neutron radiation is so dangerous - the irradiated object itself becomes radioactive. When the neutron is irradiated by the human body, the radionuclides under the influence of captured neutrons arise directly in the body, where they are more dangerous than in the external environment (because of their a and b radiation).
The properties of pervasive radiation also show the way of protection:
- Square of distance. The most effective protection against penetrating radiation is not at source. The intensity of the radiation decreases with the second power of the distance - when we increase our distance from the source ten times, we get 100 times smaller doses of radiation.
- Heavy shielding. Materials of heavy elements are used, but ordinary materials (clay, concrete, stone, water) are also effective at the appropriate thickness (many meters). Usually lead is, but depleted uranium, although weakly radioactive, is even more than twice as shielding material as lead.
Protection against penetrating radiation is important for nuclear weapons. In the case of civilian radiation disasters, we are more likely to encounter a more insidious radioactive infestation when the nuclides get into the environment, soil, water and the food chain, often over a long distance. It can be said that Chernobyl radioactivity (where it has evaporated to the atmosphere about 100 tons of enriched uranium) or Fallujah is somewhat worse than the Hiroshima atomic explosion. The radioactive nuclei that come into our body irradiate the cells close up, and non-penetrating alpha, and beta radiation is as harmful as the penetrating radiation. This is why we are advised not to open windows and avoid consumption of food from contaminated areas during radiation injuries. If radionuclides get into the body, there is no way to shade or neutralize them. It is possible to try to get radioactive isotopes out of the body (for example, chelates) and then rely on self-repairing ability of living tissue.
Biological effect of radiation
Properly energetic radioactive radiation is called ionizing ionization - it is the radiation that damages the most. Our biomolecules do not care about isotopic changes in the atomic nuclei, except for the rare cases of elemental transmutation, but they bother them when α, β and γ radiation excite electrons and thus break covalent bonds or create a free radical. The free radical is an excited state with an unpaired electron that has a relatively long life (even tens of minutes, although it usually has no place to spin), but ultimately causes the same - it mixes covalent bonds. The most sensitive to inappropriate interference is DNA, in which even a small change (mutation) can have a lethal effect (eg, cause a tumor). With a certain amount of damaged linkages, maintenance maintains DNA alignment enzymes, but if it is too much, the cell concludes that its further existence would be undesirable due to the possibility of cancerous overthrow and undergo controlled disassembly - apoptosis. This is the cause of death in acute illness from radiation: Patients have a seemingly good time (so-called walking corpse) for several days, but then they quickly die of massive apoptosis, mainly mucous membranes of the digestive tract (bloody diarrhea, dehydration), but also skin, They do not even have to lose their hair. If they survive long enough for their hair to appear, they have a chance of convalescence, but with the permanent effect of partial to complete sex sterilization. They have an increased risk of cancer for the rest of their lives: Survive cells with damaged DNA are more likely to develop into malignant tumors.
Another interesting harmful effect of radiation is genetic damage in the germinal line - the offspring. Mutations occur even in sex cells, increasing the probability of congenital deviations. This can be both negative and positive, but because our genetic parameters are in the evolutionary local minimum, it is practically always negative (except for the Simpsons series). The situation is not that terrible. Genetic damage in the germinal line is largely eliminated by natural repair mechanisms, so the health price that children and grandchildren pay for ancestral irradiation is quite low (with the exception of Fallujah, which is worse in this respect than Hiroshima ).
Radiation is not a ghost
Radiation information is good, but there is no need to worry too much about it. It is necessary to realize that the radiation damage of the cells is not in any way worse than the ultraviolet radiation on the beach. UV radiation destroys bacteria because it is ionizing. If we were transparent as a lanceolate, the stay at the beach would be equivalent to a smaller nuclear explosion at a distance of 10km. Radiation α, β and γ is basically no worse than UV, only deeper into the body. Neutrons are somewhat stronger, but in the end they cause the release of ionizing radiation, so the qualitative effect is the same. If there is an internal contamination of the body with radioactive isotopes, our cells are still in the sun that can not be turned off. But we are accustomed to it, not so much from the natural radiation background (which is very low), but rather from the various radical poisons we still get into the body. Radicals act almost on hair as well as radiation. The worst of these poisons is normally oxygen - the poison we have learned to tolerate because we feed it. But otherwise, our cells are full of enzymes and gizzards, which always cleanse the damage to oxygen. Another important source of radicals is our own immune cells, which use peroxides, superoxides and other exotic molecules as a common part of their equipment and armaments.
The Sumar Sum, if we keep the appropriate diet, so we do not have to worry about common or slightly elevated levels of radiation.
I wrote this text after my memory. It is not canonical, but perhaps it will illuminate some facts that you will not find in neurotic Wikipedia, nor in the prestigious biophysics textbooks. The topic of radiation is not exhausted - it could be written about lethal and harmful doses, measurements of radiation, sievertes, rakes, rams, becquerels, grays, curiech, until the head is spinning, about radon emanation, polonium 210, And about Litvinenko, who was poisoned by him, about Chernobyl, Fukushima, and other nuclear power plants, depleted uranium in "conventional" ammunition, what Einstein said after the war, how electronics spoiled the radioactive environment, Pneumatic and human brains, iodine pills and their seaweed substitution, radiation in the fly ash of thermal power plants, radioactive building materials made from it, cosmic radiation and radiation on airplanes, x-rays and radiotherapy, On the radiation control of welds, on radiation sterilization of foodstuffs , on the breeding of Deinococcus radiodurans , Sterilized food survives, microwaves, cell phones, and radio transmitters ... But that would not happen here. If you have an unusual page about one of these themes, write, I'm sorry.
Protection against radiation
This site is about radiation and what some doctors do not know - that the most effective means of radiation are natural adaptogens. Otherwise, the radiation is not a hastrman that we would have to irrationally fear. The first step of a rational approach to the radiation hazard is to find out if we belong to the risk group.
Who is at risk of radiation
Radiation hazard is mainly posed by pilots and flight attendants, even more than nuclear power stations and similar equipment, with the exception of emergency situations. This is one of the reasons why these professions are going to retire earlier and need a higher salary in the active period. In addition, radiologists and their assistants, radionuclide scientists and people around uranium mines and radon emanation areas. The smoker and the people in areas polluted by power fly ash are also exposed to slightly increased radiation hazards, as smoke contains a considerable number of radionuclides.
Passive protection and radioprotective adaptogens
The first step of passive protection is to measure or at least consider how much radiation we are exposed to. The second step is to avoid the danger as far as possible: Do not stay in risk area, protect yourself from external and internal contamination, etc. When this is not possible (eg pilots and flight crew members) or when the exposure has already occurred, They come to the word adaptogens. In the area of radiation protection, adaptogens on the forehead with ginseng are superior to any other medicines. Ginseng should be a standard part of oncology radiotherapy.
Radioprotective effect of ginseng
Apparently the first person to scientifically describe the radioprotective properties of ginseng was Israel Brechman, author of the adaptogen definition ( Brekhman1960ecp ). Soviet research was followed by the Japanese ( Yonezawa1976rri , Takeda1981rri , Yonezawa1981rri , Takeda1982rri , Yonezawa1985rri ). These experiments have shown that ginseng promotes the regeneration of the immune system and has the ability to reduce the likelihood of death or irreversible damage even in severe irradiation. Radiologist Morio Jonezava, who led the above-mentioned 5 experimental work, was quoted as author of the statement that " ginseng appears to be the most effective remedy available to protect against radiation damage " (" Ginseng appears to be the most useful agent available for protection against radiation damage. ", Paul Bergner, The Healing Power of Ginseng & the Tonic Herbs). Jonesava is not specialized in medicinal plants. He is a known radiologist at Osaka University, for example, named Jonezawa's effect - the radioprotective effect of low doses of X-ray radiation ( Yonezawa2006irb , Wang2013rrd ).
Reports of ginseng as a radioprotective ( Lee2005rpg , Jia2009cem , Chen2008cpe , Christensen2009gcb , etc.) document a large number of experiments with P. ginseng in various organisms, tissues and types of radiation (X-rays, X-rays, UV rays). Clearly these publications generally recommend ginseng as an adjunct to radiotherapy and chemotherapy of tumors. Specific experimental studies include:
- Kumar2003rep - radioprotective effect of ginseng (mouse).
- Verma2011arh - Improvement of the blood picture after irradiation with P. ginseng extract (mouse).
- Kim1998pgp - P. ginseng effective against the loss of hair from the irradiation (mouse).
- The ginseng extract protects against mutagenic and carcinogenic effects of in vitro ( Rhee1991imt ) and in vivo ( Kim1993vra ) radiation , as well as nervous system damage, digestive epithelial damage and cellular apoptosis ( Kim2001mrr ). All three studies were positive for diethyldithiocarbamate.
- Zhang1987mrr - Ginseng is best protected as a phytocomplex, the total extract is more effective than any fraction.
- Lee2006ivr - in three parameters of radiation protection (leukocyte regeneration, epithelial protection and inhibition of apoptosis), five ginsenosides dominate the Rg 1 , Re , Rc , Rb 2 and Rd .
- Song2003reg - Ginseng ginseng polysaccharide has protected mice from the lethal effect of ionizing radiation. In addition, irradiation ginsan specifically improved the immune response of type 1 ( Han2005git ), had an antimutagenic effect ( Ivanova2006aep ) and promoted the repair of natural antioxidant systems after irradiation ( Han2005mrd ), all mice.
- Kim2007rea - Acid Ginseng Polysaccharide (APG) protected the bone marrow from radiation (mouse).
- Kim2008erg , Kim2009sed - skin protection from ultraviolet radiation (mouse).
- Lee2009per , Kim2009egs - Protects against aging of the skin due to UV rays (mouse).
- Chang2013pek - red ginseng ( ginseng radix rubra ) protected human keratocytes from apoptosis from irradiation.
- Lee2004grm - repair of lymphocyte count.
- Han2005git - repair of T lymphocytes.
- Lee2008en - The same methodology , similar to American ginseng ( P. quinquefolius ).
- Tamura2008grp - Ginsenoside Rd protects against intestinal death in acute radiation illness.
- Park2011app - a similar effect on ginsan polysaccharide.
- Kostyleva2009gpb - Age increase in mouse model of aging accelerated by radiation.
- Kang2009erg - red ginseng ( giseng radix rubra ) effective against aging skin exposed to UVB (mouse).
- Kostyleva2010rab - red ginseng effective against the development of skin neoplasms in radiation-accelerated aging (mouse).
- Chae2009ecm - A strange report on the selective effect of Compound K , the intestinal metabolite of protopanaxadiol panaxosides, against irradiated cancer cells . The mechanism of such selectivity would be of great interest to me.
- Lee2009agm , Lee2010rea - American ginseng ( Panax quinquefolius ) protects white blood cells from the 137 Cs (human peripheral lymphocyte) model of radiation poisoning.
Other radioprotective plants
While scientists like to study effects on model plants such as ginseng, the practical TCE uses a combination of multiple plants. For example, Kim2002reb is an effective combination of Panax ginseng herbs, radix angelicae , rhizoma cimicifugae , and radix bupleuri . The Chinese gang itself is effective against radiation ( Zhao2012scr ), and Taiwan is the most commonly prescribed TCM vermin in patients with breast cancer ( Lai2012ppc ). In terms of content, Chinese crowns resemble other types of holes, including our medical crown ( Angelica archangelica ).
In scientific perception radioprotective herbs more or less cover with the category of adaptogens. Already from Brechman's time, ginseng's attention has been paid in parallel to the use of eleuthorococcus spiked against radiation damage ( Benhur1981epg , Miyanomae1988rhc ). The Indian study, Jagetia2007rpp, has found greater or lesser radioprotective potential in bivalve gentian , Centella asiatica , Hippophae rhamnoides, sacral basil , ginseng right , Podophyllum hexandrum, Amaranthus paniculatus , Emblica officinalis , Phyllantus amarus , Piper longum , Tinospora cordifolia , Mentha arvensis , Mentha piperita , Syzygium cumini , Ginger , Unhealthy ginger Ageratum conizoides , Aegle marmelos and Aphanamixis polystachya.
Thus, the list of plants with radioprotective potential is not exhausted. At a low dose, the effect of radiation is identical to oxidative damage, so the radioprotective properties of natural drugs are to some extent covered with antioxidants . In other words, some antioxidant sources provide sources of antioxidants (blackberries, blueberries , blackcurrants, gourd , garnet, blue grapes, cvikle ...) Note: The antioxidant slogan is no longer magical - the fruit, vegetables and juice from sprouted seeds Tip!) Has a broader explanation and can not be reduced to the antioxidant score measured in the tube.