Wound healing has two phases: the proliferation phase, when new tissue injury is closed, and the remodeling phase, where the excess binder is removed and the wound is ideally sutured so that it does not recognize the site of the injury. The same process takes place whether it is an accident or a surgical operation. Immediately after the injury, the immune system plays a role, which cleans the wound and prevents the infection . Whether the wound will heal badly or well, the vascular supply often decides. Its recovery is due to the growth of new blood vessels and capillaries, which can limit the overall healing speed.
The healing scar is always, but not always visible. If the wounds fit well (or are sewn) and the growth phase of the healing takes place quickly, a less excess binder appears to be visible as a scar. Even internal injuries (torn muscles, tendons and other organs) heal by forming a scar, but it is hidden beneath the surface. Bone fractures are the result of the bone marrow proliferation phase, which is the bone equivalent of the scar. Like scars, bone marrow decreases and remodels over time until it approaches the original structure of the broken bone. Eventually, the healing process takes place to regenerate the nerve endings.
Remodeling the tissue as a mirror image of the load
For a small burden, the body often responds with hyperadaptation - a compensation greater than the stimulating force. This principle of theoretical medicine , which is the essence of hardening, applies much more generally. For example, low doses of radiation elicit a stress response that has an adaptive effect ( Joiner1999ari ). In other words, an individual occasionally exposed to moderate radiation suffers from less mutations than in a completely non-radiation environment ( Jonezave effect ). Physical stress is similar: Although physical effort increases immediate wear, occasional exercise leads to better health (ie less total wear) than physical load is completely zero. Hyperadaptation is also a tan - darkening of the skin after exposure to UV radiation.
The principle of hyperadaptation is ubiquitous in physiology - it ensures adaptive tissue modeling not only in wound healing but also in general ontogenesis (ie normal growth and adolescence). Even in adulthood, after the end of the growth phase, the body tissues are constantly remodeling on the principle of hyperadaptation: Muscle and collagen fibers that break through the stress are repaired and strengthened. Those who never get hurt (they are not burdened) are eliminated over time as useless. Everyone in the cast knows how the muscles are weak after forced inactivity. Muscle fiber is also good for innervation - without it muscles are atrophic, as we can see in the paralyzed. The admirable structure of long bone bones, which inspired Gustav Eiffel to construct his tower, is more or less spontaneously - the bone is remodeled under the load to carry the burden with the minimum amount of bone material. Physical exercise and mild mechanical stress can therefore be classified as adaptogenic.
Blood wound supply and convalescence
Injuries usually result in more or less loss of bleeding tissue due to damage to the blood vessels. Healing, therefore, also includes the regeneration of the vascular bed - the growth of the newly formed capillaries into the healing site. Medicines with a positive effect on vascular regeneration have a good chance of accelerating wound healing and convalescence. As a result of ischemia, the injured site may fall asleep (necrosis). In order for the damaged tissue to survive and heal, it is necessary to restore its blood supply. For this reason, he has a medical leech ( Hirudo medicinalis ), a blood supply specialist, on the account of many miraculously cured patients with stitched fingers. (This ability is probably also a reason for the effectiveness of the leech for ischemic heart disease and heart stroke .) As a biologist, I wonder if the red stripes of the leech are a medical badge like shrimp shrimps, or is it just by accident. Balzarová , I apologize for turning.)
Regeneration of tissue as a determinant of disease and health
Each tissue is subjected at the same time to wounding effects (mechanical stress, chemical damage, radiation damage ...) and healing (natural regeneration of tissue). In healthy people, under normal circumstances, healing influences predominate over the wounded. Larger injury (an injury) is a sudden, one-off event, and healing is a natural process of return to health. However, people with chronic illness may be different. Tissue affected by chronic disease is permanently exposed to damage, and if it overcomes regeneration, non-healing wounds arise. For example, chronic civilization diseases such as diabetes or venous varices ( varicose veins , hemorrhoids , esophagus varices ) can cause skin ischemia and a leg ulcer, which does not heal simply because insufficient blood supply does not allow regeneration of the affected site. Even a slight acceleration of healing processes, for example by improving blood supply, can lead to the cure of chronic disease.
The healing and convalescence effects of plant adaptogens
In the 20th and the 21st Century, many plant adaptogens were experimentally confirmed with a regenerative effect on mammalian tissues. These effects of adaptogens are used both to improve skin appearance , to heal some types of skin inflammation , slow down aging processes and also to more serious injuries and convalescence in postoperative conditions . A positive ginseng right adaptogen model was found to have a positive effect on burns and skin injuries . The effect of adaptogens in wound healing can be partly explained by regenerative effects on the bloodstream (growth of capillaries, etc.)
The healing and convalescent effects of ginseng
The ancient textbooks of TČM describe the use of ginseng right to treat some skin inflammations (atopic dermatitis, etc.), skin injuries and also major injuries. By studying literature, I have come to the conclusion that this effect is real and is not just an artifact of a tendency to not produce negative results (as I believe, for example, in studies describing the direct anticancer effect of ginseng). The positive effect of ginseng on wound healing is now most commonly used in post-operative conditions. Most studies in this area have come from the past few years:
- According to the Japanese study Kimura2012egr (mouse), ginsenoside Rb 1 is the most effective of the most studied panaxosides of ginseng right (Rb 1 , Rb 2 , Rc, Rd and Rg 1 ) in healing burns, mainly due to improved vascular regeneration . According to the same study, ginsenoside Rb 1 has already protected the skin from damage by UV radiation at very low doses.
- Ginsenoside ( Kimura2006egs ) and specifically ginsenoside Rb 1 ( Kawahira2008egr ) improve healing of the burns (mouse).
- Ginsenoside Rb 2 improved healing of damaged skin ( Choi2002epe ).
- In experimental 40% liver resection, ginseng increased the regeneration rate by 20% ( Kwon2003ekr ).
- Genuine Genesis is active in healing experiments with atopic dermatitis ( Lee2011ekr , Kim2011eta , Sohn2011ekr , Lee2011krg , Cho2013ekr ).
Other adaptogens and healing plants with healing effects
Ginseng is a significant healing adaptogen and could talk about it longer, but other adaptogens and medicinal plants are also effective. The German study, Wang2013wpf, studied the effect of TCP herbs on the survival and division of human keratocytes. The most effective was the peony ( Paeonia suffruticosa ), slightly effective was ginseng notoginseng , Chinese goshawk and Japanese honeysuckle ( Lonicera japonica ). According to Chen2013ain astragalosid IV keratine, it has a positive effect on wound healing and scarring. The positive effect of antioxidant curcumin on wound healing is summarized ( Tejada2016whe ). TČM has its own combinations of these and other plants traditionally prescribed for accidents. Other healing adaptogens include Terminalia chebula , Bag2013dtc , Lithospermum officinale and various plants of lesser known traditional cultures. Our traditional curative plants are also effective: blackberries, noodles, downy mildew , and more, even ordinary cabbage ( Rebolla2013ebo ). Glamor improves wound healing, 22508065.