Viral diseases constitute a special category of infections because the virus is not a living organism in the usual sense of the word. Viruses multiply only within cells, and from the immune system point of view, the virus-infected cells appear to be similar to cancer cells - as cells that are "crazed". For this reason, it is worthwhile to discuss the antiviral effects of adaptogenes separately - against viral infections, they occupy completely different phytochemicals than those that are effective against bacteria .
The viral particle consists of a nucleus in which the nucleic acid (genetic information of the virus) and the envelope (capsid) is made up of proteins and sometimes also lipids. The virus capsule carries protein receptors that have the capability of specifically identifying the target cell, inserting viral genetic information into and utilizing all the source of the infected cell for the sole purpose of replicating as many other viral particles as possible. The infected cell usually breaks in time, and thousands of other viruses are blamed for it. This process usually takes from a few hours to several days in human cells. However, there are also viruses that behave differently - they integrate their genetic information into the cell's nucleus and behave fairly well there, only here and there emit a few new viral particles. For example, Eppstein-Barr virus (infectious mononucleosis) , or hepatitis (infectious jaundice) , the interest of which the host (so-called bacillus) survives and infected as many other individuals as possible. In the course of evolution, silly viruses (eg ebola) turn into smart viruses (hepatitis, flu ), superworthy (HPV, human papillomavirus that sometimes causes warts and do not harm at all) and ultimately viruses completely integrated into the host genome. It is estimated that up to 15% of the genetic information of our cells is of viral origin. Sophisticated viruses have the ability to change the host's behavior-for example, rabies virus causes aggression and bites are transmitted to other victims. The smartest parasites, however, interact with the host - such as the Toxoplasma gondii cat parasite (which is not a virus) helps cats to catch the mouse - altering their behavior by cats walking down the road. Therefore, even the presence of a totally lazy cat usually leads to the mass escape of rodents from the occupied territory. There is even a hypothesis that even otherwise reproducibly useless kissing in humans may be the result of modifying our behavior with the virus that originally transmitted through the saliva, and has now become fully indecent. (Viruses transmitted by kissing actually exist, and when adolescents first grab them, they can cause a mild fever.) A very cunning virus can also be a regular flu that helps to save as much as possible with the exception of sneezing and coughing needed to spread the disease Our health.
When we talk about the antiviral effects of antiviral agents, it is a much more diverse issue from the point of view of molecular biology than, for example, anticancer effects . This is because, while malignant cell scarring occurs in several pre-given processes, and cancer cells basically behave all the same, we have far more molecular varieties in viruses. Viruses are divided into several basic types, depending on whether they have DNA or RNA in the nucleus, and if their nucleic acid is single-stranded or double-stranded. The so-called The central dogma of molecular biology says that information in the cell is transmitted only one way, always in the direction of DNA → RNA → protein. Maintaining a central dogma is an important preventive rule that keeps both the cells themselves and the entire animal species in the course of evolution. However, some types of viruses, such as HIV, have the ability to disrupt the central dogma and the flow of information turn in the direction of RNA back to DNA. They use an enzyme called reverse transcriptase. HIV carries in the RNA core, which first by means of its reverse transcriptase translates into DNA and then puts the cell in for transcription. Thus, the nuclei of a large number of future HIV viruses are created, which, with the aid of host ribosomes, naturalize the capsids and set off to infect other TH lymphocytes. Plants that have reverse transcriptase blockers are effective against HIV but are completely ineffective against DNA or RNA viruses that do not need reverse transcriptase because they replicate their nucleus using other types of DNA or RNA polymerases. We further divide the viruses into families according to the type of capsid, the way of life and the relationship between each other. Each family of viruses has its own specific features that some adaptogens occupy and others do not. However, there are some adaptogens that turn the attention of the immune system more in the direction of the antiviral response and help with most viruses (they can be inappropriate for bacterial infections). This category includes, for example, ginseng, which is suitable for cancer , influenza and viruses, but should not be used in acute bacterial infections.
Otherwise, in virology phytotherapy, we are dealing with a similar problem as with other infectious diseases : The rate of evolution of the pathogen during the infection is high, and the plants have no reason to participate in the human pathogens. Hence, human infectious diseases against phytotherapy have gained resistance for millions of years, hence the herbs have not prevented the epidemics of plague, syphilis or Spanish influenza in the past, so we welcomed penicillin in the middle of the 20th century as a triumph of phytotherapy science. Today, not even after 100 years, when MDR's are already the MDR-resistant strains of infectious diseases resistant to most available antibiotics , the situation looks a little different again. We know that there are really effective antiviral adaptogens, but we also know that miracles can not be expected from plants and fungi in this direction. In this article, I list those that I have managed to find published studies without any guarantee of the systematicity and completeness of the information provided. Unfortunately, there is a lack of detail in the detailed processing of phytotherapy options for all existing viral diseases, and in most cases relevant studies are not available either.
Natural treatment of viral diseases
This article is currently working. Before adding more information, at least, according to the Dr. Duke database, a blueberry leaf , ginger root (best fresh) and many deaf-eyed plants are involved in the quantity of antimalarial substances among plants. Typical representatives of antiviral modifiers of the immunomodulatory type are purpura and ginseng . Other references not yet sorted out: