Every mushroom must have seen the mallow - when harvesting the fruit in the woods, it is seen as a tangle of white fibers, called hyphae, from which the fruit grows. Not everyone knows that this forest grows through forest soil (or wood-borne fungi, attacked wood) at distances of many meters, and that its overall weight is usually much larger than the total weight of the fruiting plants. When growing the biomass of medicinal fungi in vitro (ie artificially), mycelium grows much faster than fruiting. When inoculated on a culture vessel (eg a petri dish), the mycelium swells rapidly with the culture medium (agar) and after about 7 days forms on its surface the bones called primordium - the germ.
Primordium is a germ fungus in the form of bumps on the surface of the culture medium (agar). From that time the theorists would grow up in the course of time. Practically, the fungal biomass is immediately processed into the extract and packaged as capsules or tablets. The only reason why word primordium is used is to emphasize the similarity of mushroom biomass and traditional fertility.
Growing mycelium on agar in Petri dishes is easier than it seems. We need Petri dishes from our laboratory equipment (sterilization autoclave is an advantage, not necessity). Microbiological laboratory practice is an advantage, but not a necessity - experience with fruit jamming is enough.
Mycelium cultivation in domestic conditions
When growing mycelium, as with fruit harvesting, we must take care of purity and sterilization - otherwise we will grow microbial colonies instead of fungus on agar. To grow mushrooms, we first need to prepare an agar broth. Agar can be purchased as a cookie ingredient. Since agar alone does not provide nutrition to the agar, we have to enrich the agar with a nutritious ingredient, such as barley malt and yeast extract, to which soy protein can be added. These ingredients, which are commonly available, are dissolved together with agar in hot water on agar broth. Petri dishes are sterilized by boiling, and filled at 100 ° C with agar broth (also heated to 100 ° C), cover with lid and allow to solidify in the refrigerator. Mushrooms are not demanding, many species grow on even sublime substrates, so we do not have to worry too much about their nutrition.
What we need to worry about are bacteria and molds. Sterile Petri dishes should not be opened after filling and covering with the lid (same as with jar bottles). We only open them for a short period of time with mushroom sprouts or mycelium. Spores are obtained from fresh or dry sponge. We will only inoculate until the agar has solidified (20 hours in the refrigerator) and can be done with a stainless steel bar, which is first sterilized by flame:
When inoculating the lid of Petri dish we lift slowly and only for the shortest necessary time. We still hold the lid over the agar to prevent bacteria from entering. We cultivate at room temperature. As far as everything is concerned, in a few days the white mycelium of the mushrooms should grow in our bowl. The mycelium will soon create primordium ("young fruiting"). Bacterial colonies that you will certainly encounter usually appear as transparent, white or colored bumps on the surface of the agar. Fungus initially forms a mycelium-like mushroom, but it soon becomes green or black fungal spores. Mushrooms have the ability to "exert" some of the bacteria from the agar, but if the bacteria cause major problems, we can add antibiotics to the broth (mycelium and the primordium of the agar will not be eaten).
Growing mycelium on agar:
Primordium (germ), which is then formed on agar:
Cloning of mushrooms on agar
In the agar plates prepared as described above, the fungi can also be cloned. For that, we need a clean piece of fresh, living trunk that we simply put on the surface of the agar.
The mushroom fibers from which the fruiting compound is folded gradually break down and re-create the mycelium that grows over the surface of the agar. If this mycelium is used to inoculate another substrate, we obtain mushrooms, which are the clone of the used part of the fruit.
Preparations from mushroom biomass (mycelium and primordium)
The advantage of growing mycelium on agar is that we can visually see that the sponge actually grows, not bacteria or molds. Mycelium grown on agar is therefore used to vaccinate logs (or other substrates) in healing fungi plants.
In the industrial growing of mushroom biomass in the form of mycelium and priomordi, the step of growing the ferrets on the natural substrate (which can last for many months in medicinal sponges) is completely omitted and the fungus preparations are produced directly from the fungal biomass. Mycelium on agar grows rapidly (a few days), but nutrients in agar will soon be exhausted. Growth then stops and the resulting fungal biomass is processed. Mushroom biomass products have to concentrate many times because their bulk is exhausted agar. While for concentrate concentrates, the concentration is an optional, rewarding process for mushroom biomass products.
If we wanted to imitate this industrial process, we would have to pick the agar-pricked mycelium from our Petri dishes, put it in the boiling glass and dissolve the boil. We would obtain a secondary broth containing broth from mycelium and primordial and dissolved exhausted agar. Evaporation and filtration would result in a liquid concentrate, lyophilization powder concentrate.