Every mushroom must have seen the mallow - when harvesting the fruit-trees in the woods, it is seen as a tangle of white fibers called hyphae, from which the fruit grows. Not everyone knows that this forest will grow through forest soil (or wood-borne fungi, attacked wood) at distances of many meters, and that its total weight is usually much larger than the total weight of the fruit. When growing the biomass of medicinal fungi in vitro (ie artificially), mycelium grows much faster than the fruiting. When inoculated on a culture vessel (eg a petri dish), the mycelium swells rapidly with the culture medium (agar) and after about 7 days forms on its surface the bones called the primordium - the germ.
Primordium is a germ fungus in the form of bumps on the surface of the culture medium (agar). From that time the theorist will grow up in time. Practically, the fungal biomass is immediately processed into the extract and packaged as capsules or tablets. The only reason why word primordium is used is to emphasize the similarity of mushroom biomass and traditional ferrets.
Growing mycelium on agar in Petri dishes is easier than it seems. We need Petri dishes from lab equipment (a sterilization autoclave is an advantage, not a necessity). Microbiological laboratory practice is an advantage, but not a necessity - experience with fruit making is enough.
The procedure of growing mycelium in domestic conditions
When growing mycelium, as with fruit harvesting, we must take care of purity and sterilization - otherwise, microbial colony grows instead of fungus on agar. To grow mushrooms, first we need to prepare an agar broth. Agar can be purchased as a cookie ingredient. Since agar alone does not provide nutrition to the agar, we need to enrich the agar with a nutritious ingredient, such as barley malt and yeast extract, to which soy protein can be added. These ingredients, which are commonly available, together with agar, dissolve in hot water on agar broth. Petri dishes are sterilized by boiling, and filled at 100 ° C with agar broth (also heated to 100 ° C), cover with lid and allow to solidify in the refrigerator. Mushrooms are not demanding, many species grow on completely inferior substrates, so we do not have to worry too much about their nutrition.
What we need to worry about is bacteria and mold. Sterile Petri dishes can not be opened after filling and covering the lid (it is the same as for jar bottles). We only open them for a short time with a sponge-milled or mycelium-grown vaccine. Spores are obtained from fresh or dry sponge. We will only inoculate until the agar has solidified (20 hours in the refrigerator) and can be done with a stainless steel rod, which is first sterilized by flame:
When inoculating the lid of the Petri dish we lift slowly and only for the shortest necessary time. We still hold the lid over the agar to prevent bacteria from entering. We cultivate at room temperature. As far as everything is concerned, in a few days the white mycelium of the mushrooms should grow in our bowl. The mycelium will soon create a primordium ("young fruiting"). Bacterial colonies that you will surely encounter usually appear as transparent, white or colored bumps on the surface of the agar. Fungus initially forms a mycelium-like fungus, but soon it will begin to form green or black fungal spores. Mushrooms have the ability to "exert" some of the bacteria from the agar, but if bacteria cause major problems, we can add antibiotics to the broth (mycelium grown and primordium from the agar, of course, will not eat).
Growing mycelium on agar:
Primordium (germ of germs), which is then formed on agar:
Cloning of mushrooms on agar
In the agar plates described above, the fungi can also be cloned. For that, we need a clean piece of fresh, living trunk that we simply put on the surface of agar.
The mushroom fibers from which the fruiting compound is folded gradually break down and re-create the mycelium that grows over the surface of the agar. If this mycelium is used to inoculate another substrate, we obtain mushrooms, which are the clone of the used part of the fruiting.
Preparations from mushroom biomass (mycelium and primordium)
The advantage of cultivating mycelium on agar is that we can visually persuade that the sponge actually grows there and not bacteria or molds. Mycelium grown on agar is therefore used to vaccinate logs (or other substrates) in healing fungi plants.
In the industrial cultivation of mushroom biomass in the form of mycelium and priomordia, the step of growing the ferrets on the natural substrate (which may last for many months in medicinal sponges) completely omitted and the fungus preparations are made directly from the fungal biomass. Mycelium on agar grows fast (several days), but nutrients in the agar are soon exhausted. Growth then stops and the resulting fungal biomass is processed. Products from mushroom biomass have to concentrate many times because their main part is spent agar. While for concentrate concentrates, concentration is an optional, rewarding process for mushroom biomass products.
If we wanted to imitate this industrial process, we would have to choose the agar-pricked mycelium from our petri dishes, put it in the boiling glass and dissolve the boil. We would obtain a secondary broth containing broth from mycelium and primordial and dissolved exhausted agar. Evaporation and filtration would result in a liquid concentrate, lyophilizing the powder concentrate.