Oxidative damage is one of the main mechanisms of aging . Oxidation and the spontaneous breakdown of chemical bonds all the living organisms must always defend. This is done either by replacing or repairing damaged molecules, and by preventing specific substances with the ability to slow oxidation and spontaneous breakdown of chemical bonds. These compounds often act to neutralize free oxygen, radicals and other reactive oxidation groups ( Fang2002fra ). Antioxidants are very abundant in nature - they are found in the body of all plants and animals, including humans.
Fashion antioxidant diets recede
The reader of a variety of articles on healthy crops could easily get the impression that the world's largest antioxidant winner is somehow too much of the plants (and fungi!). Over the past few months, I've seen this way beautify the pickle (" Lycium Plus is the strongest antioxidant currently on the market. " ), The slant of the slant (" Chaga has the highest ORAC index ever recorded for natural food! " ), Teaspoon (polyphenols!), Garnet fruit (" Pomegranate is the most powerful antioxidant of all fruit. " ), Red wine resveratrol (" According to recent research, ActiVin is the strongest antioxidant. " ) Who wants. When I read some index tables of the antioxidant effect, I was surprised that the particular table was "spice" - turmeric, and comparable to about 5 other spices somewhere around the Marshall (I do not remember it anymore, black Pepper was not).
As Davidov remarked ( Davydov2000es , p. 378), "the future of antioxidants does not look too pink at present ." It has been shown that overeating with antioxidant vitamins or beta-carotene does not benefit (eg Rautalahti1997bdn , Teixeira2009adn ), perhaps with the exception of vitamin C. It has long been known that antioxidant vitamin A is poisonous when overdosed, later found to be carcinogenic. Now, even beta-carotene ( Rautalahti1997bdn ) is suspected, while such lycopene and lutein are still beneficial. The fact that a chemical is an antioxidant does not necessarily mean that it is useful to us. And since this article is a non-objective article, I would add that, despite the above, I myself have a good subjective experience with high doses of vitamins C and E.
Adaptogens are not just antioxidants
I think that the relatively high attention paid to the antioxidant effect of adaptogenes was given both by the fashion wave of antioxidants and by the ease with which laboratory experiments with antioxidants are carried out. Adaptogens, however, generally protect cells from being simply picking up pollutants. An example may be, for example, the recently disclosed ginseng suppressing effect on microglia activation, contributing to its neuroprotective effect . Ginseng does not remove harmful substances (eg ethanol) from the brain, but reduces subsequent damage and death of neurons due to microglia inflammation . Although adapogens often exhibit an antioxidant effect, adaptability and antioxidants can not be equated. For example, I give the model ginseng adaptogen and typically the antioxidant adaptogen to the Chinese kosovar.
Cytoprotective and antioxidant effects of ginseng
The protective effects of ginseng's model adaptogen on mammalian cells are generally known. In an effort to explain the adaptogenic effect of ginseng, much attention was devoted to its potential antioxidant action at that time. The ginseng describes both the overall antioxidant and cytoprotective effect ( Huong1998vaa ) as well as the antioxidant effects of its individual components, such as panaxosides Re , Rg 1 and Rb 1 ( Xie2006aeg , Xiang2008cau , Liao2002neg ). Significant is the effect of ginseng against oxidative damage to the vascular endothelium ( Kwok2010gpp ), which is probably one of the mechanism of action of ginseng against atherosclerosis .
The antioxidant effect of ginseng mentions only Medline over 300 publications. One example for all - Ramesh2012pgr on the natural rat aging model found that the red ginseng extract reduces lipid oxidation and increases the activity of antioxidant systems (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase and low molecular weight antioxidants such as glutathione, vitamin C And vitamin E.
However, ginseng's ginseng-based mechanisms of action show that ginseng is not an antioxidant in the true sense of the word: It does not act by removing oxygen and radicals but by improving the tissue's response to damage, whether due to oxygen, radicals, or Ionizing radiation. I'm not saying that the ginseng content has no antioxidant effects - for example ginsenoside Rb 1 directly absorbs hydroxyl radicals ( Lu2012grd ). However, the direct antioxidant effect is not what the ginseng stands out for.
The cytoprotective effect is related to the effect of ginseng on aging and radiation. Ginseng is considered to be the most effective radiation remedy available to the medical practitioner , which the Japanese radiologist Morio Yonezawa ( Yonezawa1976rri , Yonezawa1981rri , Yonezawa1985rri ) pointed out at the beginning of the 1980s.
Chinese Squirrel - Typical antioxidant adaptogen
The antioxidant effects of LBP ( Li2007elb ) and flavonoids ( Le2007iqa ) extracted from goji fruit have been demonstrated in vitro and in model organisms. The mechanism of action is similar for both groups - reductive functions, chelation of metal ions and free radicals. Betaine may also be involved in the overall antioxidant effect ( Ren1995pal ) However, more attention is paid to LBP. The LBP extract has been shown to have protective effects on heat damaged rat testicles in vivo and testicular mouse cells in vitro damaged by H 2 O 2 . ( Luo2006lbp ) Rabbits fed high-cholesterol-fed foods lowered the blood triacylglycerol content after LBP administration, improved HDL to total cholesterol and oxidative stress indicators ( Ma2005elb ). A study with similar results was also conducted on mice fed a high fat meal ( Ming2009elb ). Diabetic mice significantly reduced plasma cholesterol, insulin and glucose levels after administration of LBP, while oxidative damage and streptozotocin-induced DNA alteration were less than when LBP was not administered to mice ( W2006elb ) ( Li2007pel ) ( Zhao2005elb ).
Antioxidant effects are common in adaptogens
Compiling a complete list of adaptogens with antioxidant effects would not be easy or desirable because they are common in the plant kingdom. As a further example, I mention the highly effective polyphenol antioxidant curcumin ( Ak2008ars ) of the longcurrant , salidroside from the pink rosette ( Yang2016sao ) and the antioxidant Polyphenol of the Baikal Shihak ( Shang2010gse , Waisundara2008sbe ), not to mention the tea-tree. The strong miraculous effects of Solanaceae, with the grapefruit, vitanas, mochis, paprika and tomatoes, the lamellae ( Lamiaceae ), the shrimp, the oregano, the sage and other genera, as well as countless other miraculous plant and mushroom taxa.