About treating diseases
Simply put, health is the sum of many physiological parameters that are kept in balance. A related term is homeostasis. There are factors in the environment that deviate it from the balance. The sum of these factors is called stress in the broad sense of the word, just the burden. This burden the organism within its adaptive range resists - adapts itself to it. If the burden exceeds the body's adaptation range, there is a long-standing significant deviation from physiological balance - disease or death.
Note: From the point of view of theoretical medicine , this definition of health is too simplified, but it is sufficient here.
Paracelsus drugs - low definition, difficult to use
According to the Paracelsus paradigm , each drug, including poisons, can be a drug. More precisely, Paracelsus's view of poisons and drugs does not distinguish at all. If the therapeutic index of a substance (LD 50 / ED 50 ratio) is greater than 1 in any particular indication (main effect), it can be considered a Paracelsus medicine. Historically, Paracelsus himself used mercury, arsenic and other inorganic and organic poisons to treat. On the easiest to understand, we pay for Paracelsus medicines the necessity of defining the definition
- precise, milligrams of standardized dosage forms
- careful prescribing and accurate dose compliance
Paracelsal drugs are not unilateral effects on physiological parameters. As a result, these can only be used when there is a deviation from the physiological balance - the disease. When administering to a healthy individual, the Paracelsal remedy causes a deviation in the opposite direction, the disease being the opposite. Example: Atropine can be administered as an antidote for muscarinic poisoning. When administering to a healthy individual, atropine alone is a poison. Another example: Insulin is a drug in diabetics with increased blood sugar (hyperglycemia). If insulin is given to people with normal sugar levels, it leads to hypoglycaemia, loss of consciousness and can be lethal.
The advantage of Paracelsus drugs is that the unquenchable definition gives us a choice of a large number of chemicals, including effective antibiotics and other medications. The disadvantage is "side effects" (Paracelsus paradigm word do not use toxicity) that require precise dosage form and dosage. The doctor must know and take into account the "side effects" of Paracelsus medication.
Adaptogens - Restrictive definitions, easy to use
Unlike Paracelsus drugs, the definition of adaptogen is much more demanding. However, this restrictive definition allows for relatively unobtrusive use and dosing. Adaptogens must not have a unilateral effect on physiological parameters. When deviating from normal, the adaptogen can return the physiological parameter back to health, but in healthy ones it must not cause the difference to be the opposite. Example: Ginseng has a blood pressure lowering effect on some types of experimental hypertension ( Lee2016aek , Zhao2015epn , Lee2014rmp ). However, patients with normal or decreased pressure do not produce hypotension ( Chen2012krg , Ping2011eas , Liang2005pns ).
The advantage of adaptogens is that we can use them as if they were food. More precisely, in this category, hundreds of medicinal plants are currently available, the consumption of which is absolutely safe for us thanks to our evolutionary past. Disadvantage : Adaptogens are by definition "clever medications," but today's ones rely heavily on the inner intelligence of our body. The development of new generation artificial adaptogenes will be significantly more difficult due to this requirement than the development of new Paracelsus drugs.