About the treatment of diseases
Simply put, health is the sum of many physiological parameters that are kept in balance. A related term is homeostasis. In every environment the organism has factors that deviate from the balance. The sum of these factors is called stress in the broad sense of the word, just the burden. This burden, the body within its adaptive range resists - adapts itself to it. If the burden exceeds the body's adaptation range, there is a long-term significant deviation from physiological balance - disease or death.
Note: From the point of view of theoretical medicine , this definition of health is too simplified, but it is sufficient here.
Paracelsus drugs - low definition, difficult to use
According to the Paracelsus paradigm , each drug, including poisons, can be a drug. More precisely, Paracelsus' view of poisons and drugs does not distinguish at all. If the therapeutic index of a substance (LD 50 / ED 50 ratio) is greater than 1 in any particular indication (main effect), it can be considered a Paracelsal drug. Historically, Paracelsus himself used mercury, arsenic and other inorganic and organic poisons to treat. On the easiest to understand, we pay for Paracelsus medicines the necessity of the definition
- Precise, milligrams of standardized dosage forms
- Careful prescribing and accurate dose compliance
Paracelsus drugs are not unilateral effects on physiological parameters. As a result, these can only be used when there is a deviation from the physiological balance - the disease. When administering to a healthy individual, Paracelsus medicine causes a deviation in the opposite direction, the disease is the opposite. Example: Atropine can be administered as an antidote for muscarinic poisoning. When given to a healthy individual, atropine itself is a poison. Another example: Insulin is a drug in diabetics with elevated blood sugar (hyperglycemia). If insulin is given to people with normal sugar levels, it leads to hypoglycaemia, loss of consciousness and can be lethal.
The advantage of Paracelsus drugs is that the unpretentious definition gives us a choice of a great number of chemicals, including effective antibiotics and other medications . The disadvantage is the "side effects" (Paracelsus paradigm does not use the word "toxicity") that require a precise dosage form and dosage. The doctor has to know and take into account the "side effects" of Paracelsus medication.
Adaptogens - restrictive definitions, easy to use
Unlike Paracelsus drugs, the definition of adaptogen is much more challenging. However, this restrictive definition allows for relatively unobtrusive use and dosing. Adaptogens must not have a unilateral effect on physiological parameters. When deviating from normal, the adaptogen can return the physiological parameter back to health, but in healthy ones it must not cause the difference to be the opposite. Example: Ginseng has been shown to reduce blood pressure in some types of experimental hypertension ( Lee2016aek , Zhao2015epn , Lee2014rmp ). However, patients with normal or decreased pressure do not produce hypotension ( Chen2012krg , Ping2011eas , Liang2005pns ).
The advantage of adaptogens is that we can use them as if they were food. More precisely, in this category, hundreds of medicinal plants are currently available, the consumption of which is absolutely safe for us thanks to our evolutionary past. Disadvantage: Adaptogens are from the definition of "smart medicines," but today's ones rely heavily on the inner intelligence of our body. The development of artificial adaptogenes of the new generation will be significantly more difficult due to this requirement than the development of new Paracelsus drugs.