What is hypertension?
Human blood circulation is a hydraulic circuit consisting of a pump (heart), a branched duct (arteries, capillaries, veins) and regulation. Its main task is to supply the tissues with oxygen. The main conditions of blood supply to any organ are generally two:
- sufficient cardiac output
- throughput of the blood vessels
Therefore, the regulation of blood pressure for the body is not a priority in the short term. That's the supply of oxygen. This is understandable - a failure to supply oxygen to the brain would result in immediate unconsciousness and rapid death. It relies on the mechanical resistance of the arteries, allowing the body to briefly increase blood pressure during stress, stress, cold water intake, etc. Pressure can increase three main mechanisms:
- cardiac irritation (eg stress )
- contraction of blood vessels (eg cold)
- blockage of blood vessels ( atherosclerosis , thrombosis ...)
In hypertension (hypertension), high pressure occurs at rest, without stress. Hypertension is very widespread and usually (95% of cases) has no obvious cause - in that case it is called primary or essential hypertension. The remaining 5% of cases form secondary hypertension - having an obvious cause in another disease.
The cause of primary hypertension is unknown. Primary hypertension is often associated with arteriosclerosis , stress and adrenaline / epinephrine are suspected ( Floras1992egh ), but it is correct to say that the true cause is unknown ( Shimbo2010edr , Wilkinson2009aag , Krieger1991mbh ). Primary hypertension is about 30% inherited, with the rest being affected by diet. The primary risk factors for primary hypertension are:
- Intake of sodium (salt, sodium glutamate):
- sodium directly irritates and contrasts the smooth muscle of the blood vessels
- sodium activates natriuretic hormone, which further increases the irritability of the vascular muscle
- Arteriosclerosis and atherosclerosis - an almost natural part of aging in us.
- Obesity and insulin resistance (= type II diabetes) - obese cells stop responding to insulin, the body of despair abnormally increases its level:
- insulin increases the level of sodium in the body
- insulin itself increases blood pressure by activating other hormones
- insulin causes hypertrophy of the musculature of the vascular wall
- insulin aggravates arteriosclerosis
- Stress - In people with a sensitive cardiovascular system, stress initially increases heart activity, later also the resistance of the vascular bed (reducing the blood flow), stress also aggravates the tendency to obesity .
- Civilization addictions (alcohol, caffeine, smoking, various "powders" and others).
The risk factors in the list above are mutually reinforcing that they have become the metabolic syndrome . In addition to primary hypertension, metabolic syndrome includes obesity, diabetes mellitus (diabetes mellitus) and overload of nitrogen metabolism. Hypertension can also easily suffer from slim, healthy people. The pressure gauge applies to everyone. Hypertension and cardiovascular disorders often develop unnoticed, and their first symptom is often myocardial infarction or stroke.
In fewer (5%) cases, elevated blood pressure is the obvious cause of another disease: aorta coarctation, kidney disease, overproduction of hormones (catecholamines, corticosterone, aldosterone, cortisol, thyroxine, growth hormone, parathyroid hormone, renin, endothelin. .), pregnancy, drugs (some antibiotics , antidepressants, contraceptive pills), cerebral diseases (trauma, inflammation , polio, tumors , etc.).
Treatment of hypertension
In the treatment of hypertension, the correct diagnosis is an important factor. The pressure can be measured by some, but the differential diagnosis of cases of secondary hypertension must always be in the hands of a doctor .
Treatment of primary hypertension
The disease processes leading to arteriosclerosis and primary hypertension are not entirely clear. Primary hypertension treatment has been determined empirically: weight reduction ( Sorof2002ohc ), aerobic exercise ( Duijnhoven2010ibr ), prevention of arteriosclerosis, salt reduction, caffeine reduction, non-smoking, alcohol max 30g daily, sufficient minerals (K, Ca, Mg), reduction of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol. With a bit of exaggeration, hypertension treatment should begin at least 30 years before the first symptoms. The cardio-vascular system has a considerable reserve, so the symptoms of its progressive decline can not be noticed at all. When the circulation reserve of the circulatory system is completely exhausted and restless hypertension occurs, it means that the fight for a healthy cardiovascular system ends and the fight against an impending vascular event begins.
High blood pressure medications (antihypertensives)
The overwhelming majority of hypertensive medications are not the cause of relief, only a symptomatic reduction in blood pressure to prevent complications, particularly stroke. Common use is made of this:
- Calcium channel blockers (eg amlodipine) - flat out the main course of activation of vascular muscles,
- Angiotensin converting enzyme blockers - eliminates angiotensin (a blood-raising hormone).
- Diuretics to reduce blood volume.
Complications of hypertension
Lowering blood pressure with drugs has a palliative, symptomatic effect. But it is important because it protects against sudden vascular events. Hypertension itself is threatened by a stroke (brain haemorrhage) . Hypertension further aggravates the course of atherosclerosis . Atherosclerosis itself is a risk of blockage of blood vessels and heart attacks, especially myocardial infarction. Patients with advanced atherosclerosis need to avoid more exercise, which is against the requirement of aerobic exercise to prevent hypertension. Contemporary medicine is not cured with blood vessels.
(Unless otherwise stated, this information is largely a source of anonymous lecture "Arterial hypertension and hypotension", see , freely accessible on the website of the Institute of Pathological Physiology, LFHK UK .)
Ginseng enlarges blood vessels and reduces blood pressure
The relaxation effect of the saponin fraction of ginseng on blood vessels was known in the 1970s ( Hah1978epg , Kang1995gpg ). The hypotensive effect of ginseng water extract was confirmed in wart rats ( Chow1976psc ), rats suffering from hypertension ( Jeon2000ekr ) and also in human patients with essential hypertension ( Han1998erg , Sung2000erg ). These results are confirmed by newer experimental ( Lee2016aek , Zhao2015epn , Lee2014rmp ) and clinical ( Jovanovski2014erk ) studies.
The advantage of ginseng in the treatment of hypertension is that the reduction in blood pressure caused by it is not unilateral. In patients with normal or reduced pressure, ginseng does not cause hypotension. Therefore, it can be used as a booster medicine - for example, to increase physical performance in athletes ( Ping2011eas , Liang2005pns ). In patients with hypotension following dialysis, ginseng increases blood pressure ( Chen2012krg ). This double, contradictory effect, which returns physiological parameters back to health regardless of the direction of deflection, is typical for the category of adaptogens that inspired ginseng.
Ginseng acts on a cascade of nitric oxide (NO)
Investigating the effect of panaxosides on the nitric oxide pathway (NO) began with the finding that they increased NO levels in the blood vessels ( Chen1996cpg ) and that this effect could be blocked by NO synthase inhibitors. For this effect, ginsenosides Rb 1 ( Yu2007spn ), Rg 1 ( Lu2004gra ) and Re , but mainly Rg3 , whose effect against hypertension is the strongest of all panaxosides ( Kim1999grm , Kim2003gri , Kim2006seg ) are responsible for this effect. Panaxosides activate NO synthase both alosteric ( Xia2011grp ) and gene expression enhancement ( Furukawa2006grm ). Gssd. Rg 3 has a dual, opposite effect on inflammatory NO synthase 2 that it inhibits ( Yoon2015grr ) and vascular NO synthase 3 which it activates ( Hien2010gri ). Gssd. Rg 3 is (as most panaxosides) chiral, the effects of its S epimer and R epimer differ ( Jeong2004sgr ).
Ginseng is fighting stress and heals overall
In the prevention of hypertension, its effect on stress , ie its stabilizing effect on generalized adaptation syndrome (hence the prefix "adapto"), plays a major role. The anti- stress effect has gssd. Rb 1 ( Churchill2002npg ), majonoside R2 ( Huong1998aem ), gssd. Rc ( Kim2003egs ) and strongly vasorelaxation gssd. Rg 3 ( Kim2003iii ). According to textbooks, the stress of hypertension is first of all transient, which later leads to the loss of vascular wall muscles, increased blood vessel resistance and hypertension. Stress hormone blockers (β-blockers) are commonly prescribed against elevated blood pressure.
Ginseng protects internal organs ( heart , liver , kidney, brain , retina ...) from oxidative damage . The essence of its effect is not radical uptake but protection against apoptosis and support for regeneration of tissues, vessels and vascular lining ( He2007peg , Chen2012peg ). Red ginseng accelerates capillary regeneration at doses of several grams per day ( Morisaki1995mae ), the gssd is mainly responsible for this effect . Rg 1 ( Sengupta2004may , Chen2012peg ).
Other adaptogenes against hypertension
Many other civilization diseases, or diseases of longevity, are associated with hypertension. On the relevant pages, you will find notes about the efficacy of adaptogens against atherosclerosis , diabetes and its complications , obesity and autoimmune problems that are related to diabetes and atherosclerosis.
Bajkalin baykalin acts against the progressive thickening of the wall of the pulmonary arteries, which is the essence of pulmonary hypertension ( Zhang2014bih ). A similar effect was found in pink rosary salidroside ( Chen2016sep ). Additionally, the stapler directly reduces blood pressure by increasing plasma β-endorphin ( Lee2013rei ).
How to use the adaptogens when treating high blood pressure
Antihypertensive adaptogens achieve blood pressure lowering by relaxing smooth vascular muscles as well as allosteric Paracelsus drugs . In addition, Adaptogens act in parallel at the level of gene expression, especially on endothelial NO synthase 3. Adaptogens must therefore be taken for a longer period of time and their effect is longer. My notes on ginseng can be found here .
Treatment of hypertension requires continuous blood pressure measurement and must be performed by a doctor. Good physicians are already confident in the basics of medical botany and adaptogens in the treatment of high blood pressure. If not, they can be the victims of obsolete information, such as the often mentioned information on the interaction of ginseng with warfarin . The available experimental data agree that ginseng is safe for its interaction with warfarin . is irrelevant ( Zhu1999pig , Vaes2000iww , Lee2010ibw ). The same applies to the interaction of ginseng with amlodipine ( Ryu2014npi ). As I mention also in stroke, ginseng has its own anticoagulant effect ( Jin2007aaa , Yu2006aaa , Yun2001ekr ) and cardiac is a traditional, highly effective ( Jia2012cgm ) medicine, either alone ( Gai2012egr , Li2012srg , Maslov2009ica ), or in combinations, Han2013eai ).