The existence of natural adaptogen - the health of highly beneficial herbs without undesirable effects - is indisputable. But there is a question why. Why do these plants relatively non-specific increase the adaptive range of the organism? What are the reasons for this?
The question of why he has different types of answers
The question "Why?" is tricky in that it can be answered in different ways. For example, when we ask why an apple is sweet, it is easy to answer that the apple is sweet because of its sugar content. But the question is why the answer is different: The apple is sweet because it is healthy to eat it. Those who tasted the apples were healthier, so our apple tastes sweet today. The most interesting answers to the question are why they start with the word "to make": The apple is sweet because the animals eat and spread apple seeds on the earth's surface. Adaptogens can also be considered.
Ginseng is an adaptogen because ...
... its content strengthens many aspects of health without having toxic effects. Ginseng is an adaptogen because it combines contradictory effects and thus stabilizes the physiological balance called health. Example: Some ginseng saponins accelerate the growth of capillaries, others slow it down. Specifically, ginsenoside Rg1 and S epimer of ginsenoside Rg3 accelerate vascular growth by acting on the glucocorticoid receptor ( Cheung2011gia , Sengupta2004may , Kwok2012sg2 ), while ginsenoside ginsenoside Rb1 and compound K slow capillary growth ( Sengupta2004may ). Ginsenoside Rb 1 reduces aggression (in mice), ginsenoside Rg 1 slightly increases it, with overall ginseng calming ( Yoshimura1988ace ). Ginseng acts opposed to different types of NO synthase . It blocks NO synthase 2 (NOS2), thus inhibiting inflammation ( Park1996gri , Park2003aag , Oh2004sog , Oh2004sog , Bae2006grr ) but strengthens NO synthase 3 (NOS3), thus improving blood circulation and erection . Ginseng is opposed to immune communication. Ginsenoside Rh 1 enhances anti-cancer and anti-viral immunity ( Yu2005pgd ), while ginsenosides F1 and Rg1 enhance competitive antibacterial immunity ( Lee2004gre, Yu2005pgd ), with overall effect of ginseng in favor of anti-cancer and anti-viral immunity ( Christensen2009gcb ). This mechanistic explanation of the effect of ginseng on human physiology could be continued, but now let's focus on a causal answer to the question why ginseng does.
Ginseng is an adaptogen in order to ...
Why is ginseng so curative? In poisonous plants, we can easily explain the explanation that plants with their ingredients protect against predators. But ginseng is not poisonous at all and instead is highly healing. Here I offer a hypothesis that can be summed up by saying that ginseng is so healing because in the forest, in the absence of energy, can not afford to attract animals to consume its sugar beans or other energy-intensive chemicals. It offers healing substances - panaxosides. The energy cost of synthesis of several tens of milligrams of panaxosides is very low, but birds and animals are also willing to invest efforts to find and consume ginseng berries in forest undergrowth due to their curative effects. Ginseng thus naturally offers healing effects and its berries are colored with adequate medical redness. Ginseng is an adaptogen to keep his berries by their curative effects by attracting animals without having to invest in energy that is little in the forest. What ginseng is lacking in the quantity of energy, as the quality of the drugs it offers. The disaster of ginseng came after a man, instead of just drinking berries, learned to dig up his root in which healing drugs are much more. One has demonstrated his typical behavior by applying his cleverness to stealing and misusing other organisms. Wild-growing ginseng is now practically exterminated and cultivated as a field crop.
In a similar situation, there are many other adaptogens
Adaptogens living in energy-poor conditions such as ginseng are few, but here is another example - the Chinese schizandra (klanopraška). This forest creeper, like ginseng, grows in a shade that solves by climbing the trunks and branches in the sun. Even she does not have energy to waste. Her fruits are not sweet, but sour, but full of schisandrin and other beneficial substances. In Chinese, the schizander is called "Five-Flavored Fruit" precisely because it contains several different types of medicinal substances. Similar to the strategy, they use other medicinal shrubs: sardines, mochynes, vitans and blueberries. The idea of offering a place of energy in the fruit The healing is very widespread in nature, but the different plants differ in how powerful drugs they are able to offer. The arrows offer sugars and vitamin C, the main customer of which is human. So the spike is a synanthropic shrub that binds on its thorns, a lumberwood ax and the human need for vitamin C. Adaptive effects are a priori not expensive - on the contrary, they are often the result of the need for plants to conserve energy. The price of natural adaptogens is high only when, as with ginseng, their occurrence in nature has declined while human demand for them has increased.