Ginsenoside Rg 1
It is a damaran, protopanaxatriol panaxoside (6-Glc, 20 (S) -Glc PPT).
- It causes endothelial dependent relaxation of the in vitro aortic ring preparation in rats. ( Kang1995gpg )
- It regulates scopolamine disturbed learning in rats. ( Yamaguchi1995egi )
- In mice stressed by immobilization, plasma levels of interleukin-6 decrease. It also in vitro reduces the release of IL-6 from macrophages by epinephrine / norepinephrine. ( Kim2003iii )
- It has antidepressant activity and improved nerve regeneration in mice at a dose of 20mg / kg. ( Jiang2012aeg )
- Pxsd. Rg 1 and Re strongly suppress the production of TNF-α and NO microglia-activated lipopolysaccharides. ( Wu2007deg )
- It had a protective effect on the lungs when tested for glutamate damage. ( Shen2007peg )
- Gssd. Rg 1 and Rb 1 had a protective effect on spinal neurons in vitro. ( Liao2002neg )
- It suppressed T-cell (CD8 +) proliferation of mouse spleen with an IC50 of 64.7 μM. ( Cho2002gfp )
- It supports the production of IL-4 and maturation of T H 2 lymphocytes ( Lee2004gre ).
- Gssd. Rg 1 as well as gssd. F1 increase the binding of NF-κB transcription factor to DNA in the culture of mouse splenocytes. They also increase mRNA transcription factor GATA3 and type 2 cytokines controlled by it (IL-4 in splenocytes and IL-12 in macrophages). The highest effect on IL-4 and IL-12 was at concentrations of 5 and 10 μM, at higher concentrations, the effect was reduced to 50 μM again almost disappearing. ( Yu2005pgd )
- Gssd. Rg 1 tended to increase the aggressiveness of mouse mice ( Yoshimura1988ace ). In contrast, gssd. Rb 1 , as well as total ginseng extract, suppressed aggression.
- Supports angiogenesis. ( Sengupta2004may )
- Mixed with gssd. Rb 1 , at a dose of 48 mg / day infusion, significantly decreased the expression of PPARγ receptors in macrophages of diabetics. ( Ni2010sgp )
- Blocks the effect of inflammatory factor TNF-α on protein expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Among other things, it increases the expression of NO synthase and NO production, thus acting opposite to TNF-α. ( Ma2006pae )
- After irradiation, it protects cells from apoptosis, most of all panaxosides. ( Lee2006ivr )
- In the mouse model of arthritis, it protected the joints by inhibiting the differentiation and maturation of osteoclasts. ( Gu2014smp )