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Overweight (obesity) and effective weight loss


Overweight , or obesity , has a complex relationship to the overall physiology of the organism. For women, body weight, more precisely the waist and hip ratio , is an experimentally confirmed most important factor of beauty. Even men with too much fat in the body, however, have health and aesthetic reasons to lose weight . A separate category is the treatment of morbid obesity , which is often associated with diabetes and is a civilization disease. Mild overweight is not a problem if we maintain health, good looks and good physical fitness.

Excellent information on overweight is provided by top American intern MUDr. Todd Burstain, who formulated new weight loss rules . These rules, a few years ago new, are now becoming a major strategy of rational weight loss. Here, on Adaptogens, I add a list of these adaptogens to make it easier to fight overweight.

Principles of sustainable weight reduction

Our body weight is the result of an equation where, on the one hand, there is energy intake from food, and on the other is energy output by movement, maintaining body temperature and energy consumption of internal organs. Although we seem to be under the control of weeding and movement, in reality, the vegetative nervous system, which has the force of coercion more powerful than will, is vigilant over us.

The control center of the vegetative system and our tyrant in trying to lose weight is the hypothalamus. He is not under free control and is careful to always have sufficient fat stock for famine, mammoth injury or stay in the equivalent camp concentration camp. Hypotalamus, with an unbearable sense of hunger, forces us to adhere to the prescribed dietary regimen, regardless of our wishes. The hunger can be suppressed for a short period of time (for several days to weeks), but for the long term, the hypothalamus is on top - it has coercive circles of drug dependence. The hypotalam is also unnatural to man. To those few people who can resist the hypothalamus, mental damage is worse than obesity: mental anorexia .

How to lose weight effectively?

The Burstain diet is all about trying to negotiate with the hypothalamus. What we eat, our whole life, we try to convince the vegetative system that we have a stable source of food, and that we need a lightweight, swift body to perform our livelihood. Our vegetative system is not stupid and it's on our side, but it does not trust our intellect. By demonstrating to him that the above conditions are true, we have the chance to achieve permanent weight reductions. We must not put unrealistic goals. Respect between the hypothalamus and the forebrain must be mutual. When our hypothalamus triggers an effort to lose weight more than he feels acceptable, our intellect will lose his confidence, and we will not get rid of the hunger for a long time.

Regulation of hunger and saturation and its impact on the reduction diet

The feelings of hunger and satiety generated by hypothalamus have their hormonal correlates. These are ghrelin, the hormone of hunger and leptin, the saturation hormone. Ghrelin is produced by stomach tissues when it is empty. (It is a very ancient constructional design that the hungry organ is even in the case of intellectual creatures like people still stomach.) Leptin is produced by fat tissue, the more we become thicker. Ghrelin is therefore responsible for not going with an empty stomach and leptin to keep us from losing too much. These signals are just a guideline, the exact interpretation of which is on the hypothalamus. When the hypothalamus decides that we need a 10kg gain, it will ignore leptinally until it reaches its own. In addition to an unbearable sense of hunger, the hypotalamus has additional coercive means: Hungry will reduce metabolism, become less adventurous, more chilly, and begin to experience unexplained fatigue and seeming muscle weakness that discourages it from wasting energy. Todd Burstain discusses in detail the individual nervous and hormonal pathways that lead the hypothalamus of the stressed individuals to decide it's time to get fat. But the Burstain method is such that we feed the stomach weight reduction so as to maximize suppression of ghrelin synthesis and avoid stress to prevent the hypothalamus from giving rise to doubts about the stability of our life situation. Furthermore, we try to maximize the production of leptin by regular 8-hour sleep, which also contributes to the synthesis of this hormone. We drink plenty of fluids to suppress stress from thirst and occasionally during a high intensity exercise, let the hypothalam show that our livelihood requires swiftness. Just as there are people with stupid forebrains, we can have our misfortune for a stupid or sick hypothalamus. Therefore, the agreement with the weight hypothalamus can not be guaranteed, but trying for it is the best you can do.

The role of medicinal plants in the reduction diet

There are many plant taxa with potential anti-obesity effect. But their effect is only supportive. Even if you are helping herbs, you have to treat your diet as carefully as if you did not rely on herbs at all. From the point of view of the hypothalamus, maintaining fat stores is a matter of life and death. The hypothalamic center of homeostasis is too smart to be obliterated by an artificial sweetener or a herb. Miraculous adaptogens for weight loss generally do not exist, because overweight actually, in most cases, our vegetative system (rightly or wrongly) feels healthy. This does not mean that the herbs do not exist for the slimming, only the miracles can not be expected from them. The main treatment is to modify our behavior and diet.

The spell of slimming and nice looks is a particularly good nutrient for charlatans - the look is very important for people. For the same reason, I am referring to the weight loss herbs carefully. I do not want to raise up hope. I emphasize that maintaining normal weight in a stressful and fructose syrup company is a lifelong task for people with obesity tendencies that can not be dealt with without exercise, determination and counting of kilojoules.

Plants containing saturation hormone analogues

The feeling of hunger and saturation is influenced not only by the balance of ghrelin (hormone hunger) and leptin (saturation hormone) but also by other hormones that monitor the nutritional value of food. The feeling of saturation contributes mainly to insulin (monitors carbohydrates), to a lesser extent also to cholecystokinin (monitoring fats) and other digestive hormones signaling the quality of fats and proteins. Some plants have the ability to act on these hormonal mechanisms. Those plants that increase the level or effect of insulin have a combined effect against obesity and diabetes . These include, for example, Momordica charantia , which contains p-insulin (plant peptide analogous to animal insulin), large amounts of provitamin C and other specific substances ( Raman1996app , Habicht2014mct ). Despite some doubts about its effectiveness ( Kasbia2009nea ), I consider it a very healthy vegetable and a medicinal plant that has traditionally been in large quantities in the tropics (including Taiwan). Other medicines of this type could include Ayurvedic Salacia reticulata ( Shimada2014srh ) from the Celastaceae family, the tropical tree Lagerstroemia speciosa (growing in Taiwan) with its antidiabetic corozolic acid and Cissus quadrangularis , which Zdeněk Navrátilová writes on Dr . Patocks .

Plants containing caffeine and other thermogenic substances

The list of herbs recommended in the diet is a special chapter of a plant containing caffeine. In fact, caffeine, at least in the short term, increases the rate of metabolism and improves alertness and attention. The problem with caffeine is that people are often overdosing it today. Caffeineism is probably the only chemical addiction I'm affected. This is why I have doubts about the fact that caffeine retains its benefit in the long term, ie after the adenosine receptors on which it acts, desensitize. Caffeine is found in a large number of plants - not only in lemonades, energy drinks, and my favorite coffee. In addition to Coffea coffee, caffeine is found under the name Teine and Tea Tree ( Camellia sinensis ) under the name guaranin in Guaranía ( Paullinia cupana ) and even in the holly, in America called yerba maté ( Ilex paraguariensis ), whose caffeine is in the name of a larger Terminological confusion is called matein. From the holly leaves the members of the indigenous cultures boil encouraging tea ( Bracesco2011rai ). The sweet berries of the European holly oyster ( Ilex aquifolium ), the author of the article finds quite tasty, their effects can not be commented, because they have not collected enough of them for continuous consumption. Sweet and author's opinion is also the taste of red cauliflower, in which coffee beans are contained as seeds. In principle, little tasty treats are bitter tea leaves that are praised for their antioxidant polyphenols ( Wierzejska2014thr ). Like Jiří Sedlo , the author sees plant tasting as an important part of the biologist's holistic experience.

For thermogenic substances, L-carnitine, under the wonderful name of "fat burner", can not be mentioned. Carnitine, as the name suggests, occurs in the flesh, almost lacking in plants. Without bothering with the research, I would like to ask: How does carnitine, the body molecule of its own, should per-ax do miracles against overweight? The area of dietetics is home to superstition and rival camps. I have met, for example, the advocates of the so-called paleo diet with a high proportion of meat, who even claim that grain products are harmful and cause obesity . Their argumentation is very convincing , for some strange reason, the vegan figure is associated with Mohandas Gandhi, while meats and sausages connect me with a character like Darek Vostrele. It is much easier to evaluate my scientific diets, whose authors, fortunately, do not let go of emotionally tuned disputes. Although I am promoting the Burstain diet, which I consider to be the basis of proper reductive dietetics , I do not find it incompatible with the historically important Atkins diet , from which the paleo diet is obviously based. But back to the herbs.

In connection with slimming, garcinia cambogia ( Garcinia gummi-gutta , incorrectly Garcinia cambogia ), whose hydroxycitron acid is said to reduce appetite ( Preuss2004ose ), is often referred to as "garcinia cambogia". Since I have only the best sensory experience with tropical fruit of the genus mangostana, I do not believe it would be harmful, as it is sometimes blamed ( Melendezrosado2015ahi and other publications I do not want to search for). For the same reasons, too, I do not even believe the garcinia really helps to lose weight. Rod Garcinia is simply a family of excellent tropical fruit that we should demand fresh, not in capsules. Eating garcinia in capsules is the same sin as if we were eating strawberries in capsules.

Another thermogenic phytochemical is kapsicin from chilli peppers ( Capsicum frutescens and other Capsicum species). Capsaicin is given as a thermogenic weight loss supplement ( Stohs2012rhc ). Paprika is generally very healthy vegetables, not only hot but also sweet. Sweet pepper can, in my opinion, be considered an adaptogen. Capsaicin does not fulfill the definition of adaptogen, but I think capsaicin is not the most important in paprika. People overweight and interested in capsaicin recommend taking their intake in natural form by consuming fresh or dried hot peppers.

I will not write about other effective thermogenic substances, such as Ephedra and Forskolin from the Bearded Copper ( Plectranthus barbatus , wrongly Coleus forskohlii ), which like capsaicin lie outside the scope of adaptogens. I also will not mention SSRI anti-depressants, phenmetrazine and cocaine, which also lose weight. An intimate comment on this type of medication will give Dr. Burstain or other good practice in scientific medicine.

Citrus fruit bark

Citrus fruits have long been used in diabetes against obesity ( Nakajima2016bea , Gamboagomez2015pwp ). Citruses include lemons, oranges, grapefruit, mandarins, kumquat and others. Citrus fruit bark contains effective flavonoids (hesperidin, eryocitrin, naringenin, naringin, neohesperidin, neoeriocitrin), thermogenic alkaloid synephrine ( Stohs2012rhc ), thermogenic monoterpen d-limonene ( Tan2016mni ) and other substances. Somewhere I read that limonene is acting on the same path as caffeine, but I have already forgotten the reference. An effective part of citrus is only the fertilizer (bark, skin), not a fruit full of fructose, orange or grapefruit juice from the box. (And neither the fertilizer will work without regular weighing.)

Virtually all available citruses are available: Grapefruit ( Citrus × paradisi , see eg Gamboagomez2014cos ) and their hybrids, eg Citrus × aurantium ( Verpeut2013car ), lemons (lemon, Citrus limon , see eg Fukuchi2008lps ), oranges Orange, Citrus × sinensis , see, e.g., Cardile2015c ) and mandarins (Mandarin citron , Citrus reticulata , see eg Guo2016pot ).

Even more effective are the citrus cedar citron ( Citrus medica , Peng2009isb , Menichini2015cmc ), mandarin unšia ( Citrus unshiu , Lim2015bcu ) and my favorite kumquat ( Tan2014efm ). The big fruit of the cedar, called the Buddha's hand, has no pulp. The cedar is formed only by the fertilizer which has a high proportion of the yellow part (flaveda) due to the fingertips. They do not treat fructose but for health.

The word kumquat refers to two species of very interesting citruses of plum size close to the wild front of citrus. Round kumquat (Japanese lemon, Citrus japonica ) has a thin skin and a juicy flesh of acidic, particularly distinct flavor. Oval kumquat (lemon pear, Citrus margarita , or lemon oval, Citrus obovata ), on the other hand, does not have a pulp at all - it is all made of highly aromatic garlic. Oval kumquat is my favorite citrus fruit consumed due to the opiate. In my opinion, it is tastier than cedar and has an even higher proportion of the yellow part. I'm not surprised at all that, Dukea has an oval kumquat amongst plants the highest content of limonene.

Citrus bark intended for consumption must not be chemically treated. Virtually all citrus fruits on our shelves are sprayed with biphenyl and thiabendazole, poisons of oil character that can not be washed from the bark . In subtropical and tropical lands, chemically untreated citruses are thrown out of trees (be careful - there is virtually every tree of a particular owner with crop demands in overcrowded Asia), in Bohemia you have to buy citruses in so-called bio-quality, see, for example, the Macro offer .

Fats and oils

Both Burstain and Atkins agree that we need to eat enough fat in the diet. The bigger question is what particular fats and oils should be. Intuition says that those that are the source of abundant amounts of essential fatty acids and vitamins. I do not know if there are oilseeds specifically contributing to weight loss. This is referred to as Sesamum indicum , Stohs2016rns and peanuts ( Arachis hypogea , Gamboagomez2015pwp ), or peanuts, but such claims would have to pay for many other oils. Fats and oils are also highly energy-efficient and easily overdosed. Even if you consume it in excessive quantities, you will become the healthiest oil safely.

Recently, over-propagated coconut oil does not, in my opinion, stand out above other oils (rapeseed, sunflower, sesame, olive ...) and is not specifically effective against obesity. Coconut oil has two main advantages: High burning resistance and low purchase price. Burn resistance is due to the low content of unsaturated fatty acids. Low price again thanks to cheap coconut nuts in the tropics. The coconut oil from which the coconut oil is pressed is regarded as a secondary product after coconut milk. In India, coconut oil belongs to the cheapest fats. (But the palm oil is notorious for sale is even cheaper!) Selling cheaply bought coconut oil as a luxury food carries the high margin of campaigning. Its low content of unsaturated fatty acids is not a dietary advantage. I like the flavor of coconut, but I still enjoy the vegetable oils with a high content of unsaturated fatty acids (in descending order: sesame, olive, sunflower) and nuts whose oils (except cashew nuts) are also mostly unsaturated (sorted in descending order: hazelnuts, Pine nuts, almonds, peanuts, walnuts). Walnuts are so healthy that they should taste just as well as hazelnuts, but I have probably overcome them in my childhood. I still enjoy very healthy poppy, which I also consume in large quantities. I'm a little less tasty linseed. Healthy oil seeds are otherwise very much and I do not even know them, let alone sensory judgment. I really enjoy healthy avocado if it's soft. (I remember the avocado pulp contains 14% of the healthy fat.) Of the cheap oils without distinctive taste, healthy soybean oil, rapeseed oil and many others (tea, flax, grape ...) I like the goose and duck lard of animal fats, I have already given up the consumption of this poultry. I also taste good quality butter (not the cheapest in the shop); on the contrary, I do not like a very healthy fish fat other than cod liver. But I consider fish soup from healthy oily fish to be a cure for pain and inflammation. Also, the fats are healthy (snakes are consumed in Taiwan as a cure, crocodiles are delicious in China, turtle soup is popular with us) and birds (remember that birds are basically disguised dinosaurs). I consider crab fats to be healing, but I do not recommend them because of the respect and protection of reptiles before the scale. Chicken soup, moreover, was considered a cure before the grandmother's era.

A minor explanation: Oils and fats are such a complex dietetic theme that I consider my own sense of purpose a better guide than the long searches I have been doing. The complexity of the nutritional topic of fats is also evidenced by the fact that at least three different auxiliary hormones of saturation are used in our vegetative system to assess the quality of the fats. Yes, I know about ω-3, ω-6 and ω-9 unsaturated fatty acids, I know about the importance of short chain fatty acids in reducing diet ( Canfora2015sfa ), I know about the hypothetical efficacy of ω-3 unsaturated long chain fatty acids Munro2013dsw ), but after all research I consider the best overall guide to my own sense of taste.


In reducing diets, fiber can not be omitted. The fiber reduces the feeling of hunger ( Delargy1997eat ) and improves digestion. The fiber is omnipresent, but there are many kinds of fiber. Insoluble fiber includes cellulose found in all woody parts of plants. The optimal fiber content is wild-type vegetables - dandelion, wild salad, wild crucian, nettle, etc. Insoluble fiber is also chitin (mykochitin), the main component of mushroom mesh. Soluble fiber includes non-digestible substances of gelatinous and gelatinous consistency - agar, gelatin and rubber substances found, for example, in the husks of seeds of certain plants. Popular sources of fiber include grain bran, swallowing plantain bran ( Plantago ovata , Turnbull1995epo ), swelling saffron seeds ( Salvia hispanica , chia, Timilsena2016mfc ), seaweed full of soluble agar-type fiber ...

To the two basic types of fiber (insoluble and soluble), I would like to logically add a third type - fiber grained. I would describe grain fiber as an insoluble fiber of granular consistency that helps digest food in the digestive system just like sand in the muscular stomach of birds. Granular fiber includes hard seeds of small berry fruit consumed whole (blueberries, currants, hazel, hawthorn ...) and other coarse woody parts of plants. Sand and gravel do not consume people, but in TČM and other traditional systems it is possible to see that inorganic clays are prescribed for consumption. Mineral pharmaceuticals of TČM for fiber do not systematically belong, although they can contribute to digestion by insoluble granular component.

Ginseng offers body health, not a direct weight reduction

Ginseng is beneficial in obesity, but it is not a means of weight loss. I say this in spite of many studies claiming that ginseng helps lose weight ( Mollah2009aew , Hwang2009aeg , Gu2013gra , Kim2011aeo ). In my opinion, ginseng as an adaptogen does not have a weight reduction in the job description. For diminished and malnourished ginseng, it improves appetite and helps to gain weight. Weakness and anorexia are among the main gynecological signs. Specifically, ginsenoside Rb1 stimulates adipogenesis of Chan2012gpa and induces expression of collagen I Kwok2012gri . Ginseng is beneficial for the diet due to other reasons:

  1. Ginseng works against obesity and diabetes by acting on nuclear PPAR receptors, about which I wrote a separate page .
  2. Ginseng suppresses stress and chronic pain . According to Dr. Burstan's stress and pain are the main risk factors for avoiding weight loss.

With its anti-inflammatory effect, ginseng improves the recovery from sports activities that we have to do unconditionally in weight loss. Ginseng reduces the levels of inflammatory factors TNFα and IL-6, thereby reducing obesity. In obesity, it actually acts as a counterpart to nicotine. Nicotine suppresses appetite, but it is undesirable. Ginseng can improve appetite, but is obese desirable. Only those obese patients who, for individual reasons, increase their appetite.

Use of other adaptogens in weight loss

It would be against the principle of adaptive action to divert the body from the state that our vegetative system sees as healthy - though secular fashion may be different. Adaptogens are therefore not used directly to lose weight, but mostly in combination with thermogenic and appetite suppressing herbs to balance their activating and sometimes hypertensive effect . This is the case of caffeine, citrus, ginkgo (ie ephedrine), etc., which combine with real adaptogens - pink rosary (eg Verpeut2013car ), sacred basil (eg Gamboagomez2014cos ), ginseng, notoginsenge etc. Has the potential to accumulate fat ( Lee2011ria ).

As for the glossy gloss gloss model, its admirers say it is suitable for obesity and diabetes ( Seto2009nhe , Chang2015glr , Thyagarajansahu2011rmb ). Lesklokorka has a large immunomodulatory effect ( Xu2011glp ) which I do not understand mechanistically, but I presume that glossy skin actually limits the thickness toxicity (compare, for example, with the Ko2008ats study), although it does not help by reducing body weight alone.

Slimming in my opinion will not be good for Punica granatum , tasty Aloe Vera drinks or Persea americana full of healthy vegetable fat, although it is potentially effective as Gamboagomez2015pwp . It is even more interesting to see the possibility of the effectiveness of common beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris ) and peanuts ( Arachis hypogea), which are obese. The Stohs2016rns overview for this category of dietary reduction supplements also adds sesame ( Sesamum indicum ) and oil of moringa oleifera ( Moringa oleifera ) .

Other recommended adaptogens from the above reviews are Hibiscus sabdariffa , St John's wort ( Hypericum perforatum ), Rosmarinus officinalis and Taraxacum officinale , of which the leaf and root are. The Sudanese hibiscus is commonly grown in the tropics (including Taiwan) because of medicinal, very acidic fruits, and it is not a problem to find it in TČM stores. In the TBM mixtures against obesity, red sage ( Salvia miltiorrhiza , Su2015smt ) also occurs . I am not able to comment on its effectiveness, but I wholeheartedly recommend the entire Salvia line including Salvia officinalis .

| 16.6.2009