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Overweight (obesity) and effective weight loss

Overweight

Overweight , or obesity , has a complex relationship to the overall physiology of the organism. For women, body weight, more precisely the waist and hip ratio , is an experimentally confirmed most important factor of beauty. Even men with too much fat in the body, however, have health and aesthetic reasons to lose weight . A separate category is the treatment of morbid obesity , which is often associated with diabetes and is a civilization disease. Mild overweight is not a problem if we maintain health, good looks and good physical fitness.

Excellent information on overweight is provided by top American intern MUDr. Todd Burstain, who formulated new weight loss rules . These rules, a few years ago new, are now becoming the main strategy of rational weight loss. Adaptogens Adaptogens here additionally adds a list of adaptogens that make it easier to fight overweight.

Principles of sustainable weight reduction

Our body weight is the result of an equation where, on the one hand, there is energy intake from food, and on the other is energy output by movement, maintaining body temperature and energy consumption of internal organs. Although we have seemingly under the control of weeding and movement, in reality, a vegetative nervous system, which has a force of coercion more powerful than will.

The control center of the vegetative system and our tyrant in trying to lose weight is the hypothalamus. He is not under free control and is careful to ensure that we always have sufficient fat stock for famine, mammoth injury or residence in the equivalent of a concentration camp. Hypotalamus, with an unbearable sense of hunger, forces us to adhere to the prescribed dietary regimen, regardless of our wishes. The hunger can be suppressed for a short period of time (for several days to weeks), but in the long run, the hypothalamus is on top - there are coercive circuits of drug dependence. In addition, the hypothalamus is unnatural to man. To those few people who can rebel the hypothalamus, mental damage is worse than obesity: mental anorexia .

How to lose weight effectively?

The Burstain diet is all about trying to negotiate with the hypothalamus. What we eat, with our whole diet, we try to convince the vegetative system that we have a stable source of food and that we need a light and swift body to carry on our lives. Our vegetative system is not stupid and it's on our side, but it does not trust our intellect. If we demonstrate to him that the above conditions are true, we have the chance to achieve permanent weight reductions. We must not put unrealistic goals. Respect between the hypothalamus and the forebrain must be mutual. When we hypothesize the hypothalamus to try to lose weight more than he thinks acceptable, our intellect will lose his confidence and we will not get rid of the hunger for a long time.

Regulation of hunger and saturation and its impact on the reduction diet

The feelings of hunger and satiety generated by the hypothalam have their hormonal correlates. These are ghrelin, hunger hormone and leptin, saturation hormone. Ghrelin is produced by the tissues of the stomach when it is empty. (It is a very ancient design that the hungry organ is as much a matter of intellectual creatures as people are still stomach.) Leptin is produced by fat tissue, the more we become thicker. Ghrelin is therefore responsible for not going with an empty stomach and leptin to keep us from losing too much. These signals, however, are just a guideline whose exact interpretation is on the hypothalamus. When the hypothalamus decides that we need a 10kg gain, he will ignore the leptin signals until he reaches his or her own. In addition to an unbearable sense of hunger, the hypothalamus has additional coercive means: Hungry will reduce metabolism, become less adventurous, more chilly, and begin to experience unexplained fatigue and seeming muscle weakness that discourages it from wasting energy. Todd Burstain discusses in detail the individual nervous and hormonal pathways that lead the hypothalamus of the stressed individuals to decide it's time to get fat. However, the Burstain method's summary is such that we feed the stomach weight reduction so as to maximize suppression of ghrelin synthesis and avoid stress to prevent the hypothalamus from giving rise to doubts about the stability of our life situation. Furthermore, we try to maximize the production of leptin by regular 8-hour sleep, which also contributes to the synthesis of this hormone. We drink plenty of fluids to suppress stress from thirst and occasionally during or through high intensity exercises we show the hypothalamus that our livelihood requires swiftness. Just as there are people with silly forebrains, we can have our luck in the stupid or sick hypothalamus. Therefore, the weight hypothesis agreement can not be guaranteed, but trying for it is the best you can do.

The role of medicinal plants in the reduction diet

There are many plant taxa with potential anti-obesity effect. But their effect is only supportive. Even if you are helping herbs, you have to treat your diet as carefully as if you did not rely on the herbs at all. From the perspective of the hypothalamus, maintaining fat stores is a matter of life and death. The hypothalamic homeostasis center is too clever to get bogged down with an artificial sweetener or herb. Miraculous adaptogens for weight loss generally do not exist, because overweight actually, in most cases, our vegetative system (rightly or wrongly) feels healthy. This does not mean that the herbs do not exist for the slimming, but only miracles can not be expected from them. The main treatment is to modify our behavior and diet.

The spell of slimming and nice looks is a particularly good nutrient for charlatans - the look is very important for people. For the same reason, I am referring to the weight loss herbs carefully. I do not want to raise up hope. I stress that maintaining normal weight in a stressful and fructose syrup company is a lifelong task for people with a tendency to obesity that can not be dealt with without exercise, determination and counting kilojoules.

Plants containing saturation hormone analogues

The feeling of hunger and saturation is influenced not only by the balance of ghrelin (hormone hunger) and leptin (the hormone of saturation), but also by other hormones that monitor the nutritional value of food. The feeling of saturation is mainly due to insulin (monitoring carbohydrates), to a lesser extent also to cholecystokinin (monitoring fats) and other digestive hormones that signal the quality of fats and proteins. Some plants have the ability to act on these hormonal mechanisms. Those plants that increase the level or effect of insulin have a combined effect against obesity and diabetes . These include Momordica charantia , which contains p-insulin (plant peptide analogous to animal insulin), large amounts of provitamin C and other specific substances ( Raman1996app , Habicht2014mct ). Despite some doubts about its effectiveness ( Kasbia2009nea ), I consider it a very healthy vegetable and a medicinal plant that has traditionally been in large quantities in the tropics (including Taiwan). Other medicinal products of this type could include Ayurvedic Salacia reticulata ( Shimada2014srh ) of the Celastraceae family , the tropical tree Lagerstroemia speciosa (growing in Taiwan) with its antidiabetic corozolic acid and Cissus quadrangularis , which Zdeněk Navrátilová writes on Dr . Patocks .

Plants containing caffeine and other thermogenic substances

The list of herbs recommended in the diet is a special chapter of the caffeine-containing plant. In fact, caffeine, at least in the short term, increases metabolic rate and improves alertness and attention. The problem with caffeine is that people are often overdosing it today. Caffeineism is probably the only chemical addiction I've suffered. That is why I have doubts about the fact that caffeine retains its benefit in the long term, ie after the adenosine receptors on which it acts, desensitize. Caffeine is found in a large number of plants - not only in lemonades, energy drinks, and my favorite coffee. In addition to Coffea coffee, caffeine is found under the name Teine and Tea Tree ( Camellia sinensis ) under the name Guaranin in Guarana ( Paullinia cupana ) and even in the holly, in America called yerba maté ( Ilex paraguariensis ), whose caffeine is in the name of a larger Terminological confusion is called matein. From the holly leaves the members of the indigenous cultures boil encouraging tea ( Bracesco2011rai ). The sweet berries of the European honeysuckle ( Ilex aquifolium ), the author of the article, finds them rather tasty, their effects can not be commented, because they have not collected enough for their constant consumption. Sweet and author's opinion is also the taste of red cauliflower, in which coffee beans are contained as seeds. In principle, little tasty treats are bitter tea leaves that are praised for their antioxidant polyphenols ( Wierzejska2014thr ). Like Jiří Sedlo , the author considers plant tasting as an important part of the biologist's holistic experience.

Thermogenic substances can not be mentioned L-carnitine, which is offered under the wonderful name of "fat burner". Carnitine, as the name suggests, occurs in the flesh, almost lacking in plants. Without bothering with the research, I would like to ask: How does carnitine, the body molecule of its own, should per se do miracles against overweight? The area of dietetics is home to superstition and rival camps. I met, for example, supporters of the so-called paleo diet with a high proportion of meat, who even claim that grain products are harmful and cause obesity . Their argumentation is very convincing , for some strange reason, the vegan figure is associated with Mohandas Gandhi, while meats and sausages connect me with a character like Darek Vostrele. It is much easier to evaluate my scientific diets, whose authors, fortunately, do not let go into emotionally tuned disputes. Although I am promoting the Burstain diet, which I consider to be the basis of proper reductive dietetics , I do not find it incompatible with the historically important Atkins diet , of which the paleo diet is obviously based. But back to the herbs.

In connection with slimming, garcinia cambogia ( Garcinia gummi-gutta , incorrectly Garcinia cambogia ), whose hydroxycitronic acid is said to reduce appetite ( Preuss2004ose ), is often mentioned as "garcinia cambogia". Since I have only the best sensory experience with tropical fruit of the genus Mangostana, I do not believe it would be harmful, as it is sometimes blamed ( Melendezrosado2015ahi and other publications I do not want to find). For the same reasons, too, I do not even believe the garcinia really helped someone lose weight. Rod Garcinia is simply a genus of excellent tropical fruit that we should demand fresh, not in capsules. Eating garcinia in capsules is the same sin as if we were eating strawberries in capsules.

Another thermogenic phytochemical is capsicin from chilli peppers ( Capsicum frutescens and other Capsicum species). Capsaicin is given as a thermogenic weight loss supplement ( Stohs2012rhc ). Paprika is generally very healthy vegetables, not only hot but also sweet. Sweet pepper can, in my opinion, be considered an adaptogen. Although capsaicin does not meet the adaptogen definition, I do not think capsaicin is the most important thing in paprika. People overweight and interested in capsaicin recommend taking their intake in natural form by consuming fresh or dried hot peppers.

I will not write about other effective thermogenic substances, such as Ephedra and Forskolin from the Bearded Copper ( Plectranthus barbatus , wrongly Coleus forskohlii ), which, like kapsaicin , are outside the scope of adaptogens. Also, I would not mention SSRI antidepressants, fenmetrazine and cocaine, which are also thinning out. An intimate comment on this type of medication will give Dr. Burstain or other good practice in scientific medicine.

Bark of citrus fruits

Citrus fruits have long been used in diabetes against obesity ( Nakajima2016bea , Gamboagomez2015pwp ). Citruses include lemons, oranges, grapefruit, mandarins, kumquat and others. Citrus fruit bark contains effective flavonoids (hesperidin, eryocitrin, naringenin, naringin, neohesperidin, neoeriocitrin), thermogenic alkaloid synephrine ( Stohs2012rhc ), thermogenic monoterpen d-limonene ( Tan2016mni ) and other substances. Somewhere I read that limonene is acting on the same path as caffeine, but I have forgotten the reference. An effective part of citrus is only the fertilizer (bark, peel), not a fruit full of fructose, orange or grapefruit juice from the box. (And neither the fertilizer will work without regular weighing.)

Virtually all available citruses are available: Grapefruit ( Citrus × paradisi , see eg Gamboagomez2014cos ) and their hybrids such as Citrus × aurantium ( Verpeut2013car ), lemons (lemon, Citrus limon , see eg Fukuchi2008lps ), oranges orange, Citrus × sinensis , see, e.g., Cardile2015c ) and mandarins (Mandarin citron , Citrus reticulata , see eg Guo2016pot ).

The citrus cedar ( Citrus medica , Peng2009isb , Menichini2015cmc ), mandarin unšia ( Citrus unshiu , Lim2015bcu ) and my favorite kumquat ( Tan2014efm ) are even more effective . The big fruit of the cedar, called the Buddha's hand, has no pulp. The cedar is formed only by a fertilizer that has a high proportion of the yellow part (flaveda) due to the fingertips. They do not care about fructose but for health.

The word kumquat refers to two species of very interesting citrus-sized plums close to the wild front of citrus. Round kumquat (Japanese lemon, Citrus japonica ) has a thin skin and a juicy pulp of acidic, particularly pronounced flavor. Oval kumquat (lemon pear, Citrus margarita , or lemon oval, Citrus obovata ), on the other hand, does not have a pulp at all - it is all made of high aromatic garlic. Oval kumquat is my favorite citrus fruit consumed due to the opiate. In my opinion, it is tastier than cedar and has an even higher proportion of the yellow part. I'm not surprised at all that, Dukea has an oval kumquat amongst plants the highest content of limonene.

Citrus bark intended for consumption must not be chemically treated. Virtually all citrus fruits on our shelves are sprayed with biphenyl and thiabendazole, poisons of oil character that can not be washed from the bark . In subtropical and tropical lands, chemically untreated citruses are pulled from trees (be careful - in overcrowded Asia, there is virtually every tree of a particular owner with crop demands), in the Czech Republic you have to buy citrus in the so-called bio-quality, see for example the appropriate Macro offer .

Fats and oils

Both Burstain and Atkins agree that we need to eat enough fat in the diet. The bigger question is what particular fats and oils should be. Intuition says that those that are the source of abundant amounts of essential fatty acids and vitamins. I do not know if there are oilseeds specifically contributing to weight loss. This is called Sesamum indicum , Stohs2016rns and groundnuts ( Arachis hypogea , Gamboagomez2015pwp ), or peanuts, but this claim would have to pay for many other oils. Fats and oils are also highly energy-efficient and easily overdosed. Even from the healthiest oil you will become fatter if you consume it in excessive quantities.

Recently, the over-propagated coconut oil, in my opinion, does not stand above other oils (rapeseed, sunflower, sesame, olive ...) and is not specifically effective against obesity. Coconut oil has two main advantages: High burning resistance and low purchase price. The burning resistance is due to the low content of unsaturated fatty acids. Low price again thanks to cheap coconut nuts in the tropics. The coconut oil from which the coconut oil is pressed is regarded as a secondary product after coconut milk. In India, coconut oil belongs to the cheapest fats. (But palm oil is still cheaper!) Selling cheaply bought coconut oil as a luxury food carries the high margin it is in the campaign. Its low content of unsaturated fatty acids is not a dietary advantage. I like the flavor of coconut, but I still enjoy the vegetable oils with a high content of unsaturated fatty acids (in descending order: sesame, olive, sunflower) and nuts whose oils (except cashew nuts) are also mostly unsaturated (sorted downwards: hazelnuts, pine nuts, almonds, peanuts, walnuts). Walnuts are so healthy that they should taste as well as hazelnuts, but I probably have been too much in their childhood. I still enjoy very healthy poppy, which I also consume in large quantities. Feels less flavor of flaxseed. Healthy oilseeds are otherwise very much and I do not even know them, let alone sensory judgment. I really enjoy healthy avocado if it's soft. (I remember that the pulp of avocados contains 14% of healthy fat.) Of the cheap oils without a pronounced taste, healthy soybean oil, rapeseed oil and many others (tea, flax, grape ...) I like the goose and duck lard of animal fats, I have already given up the consumption of this poultry. I also taste very good butter (not the cheapest in the shop), on the contrary I do not like the very healthy fish fat besides the cod liver. But I consider fish soup of healthy oily fish to be a cure for pain and inflammation . Healthy fats are also rags (snakes are consumed in Taiwan as a cure, crocodiles are a delicacy in China, turtle soup is popular with us) and birds (remember that birds are basically disguised dinosaurs). I consider crab fats to be healing, but I do not recommend them because of the respect and protection of reptiles before the scale. Chicken soup, in fact, was considered a cure before the era of large-scale babies.

Minor explanation: Oils and fats are such a complex dietetic theme that I consider my own sense of purpose as a better guide than long searches I have been doing. The complexity of the nutritional theme of fats is also evidenced by the fact that at least three different helper saturation hormones are used in our vegetative system to assess the quality of the fats. Yes, I know about ω-3, ω-6 and ω-9 unsaturated fatty acids, I know about the importance of short chain fatty acids in the reducing diet ( Canfora2015sfa ), I know about the hypothetical efficacy of ω-3 unsaturated long chain fatty acids Munro2013dsw ), but after all research, I consider the best overall guide to my own sense of purpose.

Fiber

In reducing diet, fiber can not be omitted. The fiber reduces the feeling of hunger ( Delargy1997eat ) and improves digestion. The fiber is ubiquitous, but there are many kinds of fiber. Insoluble fiber includes cellulose found in all woody parts of plants. The optimum fiber content is wild-type vegetables - dandelion, wild salad, wild crucian, nettle, etc. The insoluble fiber is also chitin (mykochitin), the main component of mushroom mesh. Soluble fiber includes non-digestible substances of gel-like and gelatinous consistency-agar, gelatin, and gum-like substances found, for example, in the husks of seeds of certain plants. Popular sources of fiber include cereal bran, swallowing plantago ovata , Turnbull1995epo , swamping hispanic sage ( Salvia hispanica , chia, Timilsena2016mfc ), seaweed full of soluble agar-type fiber ...

To the two basic types of fiber (insoluble and soluble) I would like to logically add a third type - fiber grained. I would describe grain fiber as an insoluble fiber of granular consistency that helps digest food in the digestive tract, just like sand in the muscular stomach of birds. Granular fiber includes hard seeds of small berry fruit consumed whole (blueberries, currants, hazel, hawthorn ...) and other coarse grains of woody plants. Sand and gravel do not consume people, but in TČM and other traditional systems it is possible to see that inorganic clays are prescribed for consumption. Mineral pharmaceuticals of TČM for fiber do not systematically belong, although they can contribute to digestion with an insoluble granular component.

Ginseng offers body health, not a direct weight reduction

Ginseng is beneficial in obesity, but it is not a means of weight loss. I say this in spite of several studies claiming that ginseng helps lose weight ( Mollah2009aew , Hwang2009aeg , Gu2013gra , Kim2011aeo ). In my opinion, ginseng as an adaptogen does not have a weight reduction in the job description. For weakened and malnourished ginseng, it improves appetite and helps to gain weight. Weakness and anorexia are among the main TSE ginseng indications. In particular, ginsenoside Rb1 stimulates adipogenesis of Chan2012gpa and induces expression of collagen I Kwok2012gri . Ginseng is beneficial for the diet due to other reasons:

  1. Ginseng works against obesity and diabetes by acting on nuclear PPAR receptors, about which I wrote a separate page .
  2. Ginseng suppresses stress and chronic pain . According to Dr. Burstan's stress and pain are the main risk factors for avoiding weight loss.

By its effect against inflammation, ginseng improves recovery after sports activities, which we must unconditionally pay for weight loss. Ginseng reduces the level of inflammatory factors TNFα and IL-6, thereby reducing obesity. In obesity, it behaves like a nicotine. Nicotine suppresses appetite, but it is undesirable. Ginseng can improve appetite, but is obese desirable. Only those obese patients who, for individual reasons, increase their appetite.

Use of other adaptogens in weight loss

It would be against the principle of adaptive action to deviate the body from the state that our vegetative system sees as healthy - though secular fashion may be different. Adaptogens are therefore not used directly for weight loss, but mostly in combination with thermogenic and appetite suppressing herbs to balance their activating and sometimes hypertensive effect . This is the case of caffeine, citrus preparations, spider (ie ephedrine), etc., which combine with real adaptogens - pink rosary (eg Verpeut2013car ), sacral basil (eg Gamboagomez2014cos ), ginseng , notoginsenge etc. has the potential to accumulate fat ( Lee2011ria ).

As for the glossy gloss gloss model, the admirers say it is suitable for obesity and diabetes ( Seto2009nhe , Chang2015glr , Thyagarajansahu2011rmb ). Lesklokorka has a large immunomodulatory effect ( Xu2011glp ), which I do not understand mechanistically, but I presume that glossy skin actually limits the toxicity of the thickness (compare, for example, with the Ko2008ats study), although it does not help by reducing body weight alone.

Slimming in my opinion will not be good for Punica granatum , tasty Aloe Vera drinks or Persea americana full of healthy vegetable fat, although it is potentially effective as Gamboagomez2015pwp . I will find it more interesting (from the same overview) the possibility of efficacy of common beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris ) and peanuts ( Arachis hypogea), but obese ones can not be eaten. The Stohs2016rns overview for this category of dietary supplement supplements also adds sesame ( Sesamum indicum ) and oil of moringa oleifera ( Moringa oleifera ) .

Other recommended adaptogens from the above reviews are Hibiscus sabdariffa , Hypericum perforatum , Rosmarinus officinalis, and Taraxacum officinale , of which the leaf and root are. The Sudan hibiscus is commonly grown in the tropics (including Taiwan) because of medicinal, very acidic fruits, and it is not a problem to find it in TČM stores. In the TBM mixtures against obesity, red sage ( Salvia miltiorrhiza , Su2015smt ) also occurs . I can not comment on its effectiveness, but I strongly recommend the entire Salvia line including Salvia officinalis .

| 16.6.2009