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Atherosclerosis

Atherosclerosis, a cause of ischemic heart disease , is a condition where the coating is deposited in the arteries of oxidized fat (atheroma). Atherosclerosis is the most common of the diseases of civilization ( Barac2009mdv ). Oxidation of the lipids in the blood is proportional to the amount of fat droplets (LDL) in the blood and the amount of free radicals in blood. The amount of free radicals in turn correlates with the amount of oxygen - hence atheroma forms only in the arteries. Capturing oxidized lipids on the inner surface of blood vessels (endothelium) summon macrophages that try pollution clean up the oxidized fats absorb and degrade. If these oxidized fat particles too much, macrophages eventually Udrea to death and ingested lipids again poured onto the vessel wall. This summon additional macrophages, which awaits the same fate. To affected areas gradually created atheroma - a "cemetery macrophages", which has certain characteristics of an inflammatory focus. Cholesterol accumulates there, which is quite resistant to degradation. Simplified lesson is that atherosclerosis is mainly immune process, and this fact is not mutually exclusive with the cholesterol hypothesis of cardiovascular diseases ( Ignarro2007npa ). Although the athero sclerosis (not to be confused ss arterio sclerosis ) causes myocardial infarction, not one of the direct causes of hypertension ( Shimbo2010edr ).

Factors atherosclerosis

Atherosclerosis begins in early adulthood and progresses throughout life, without causing problems. Developed atherosclerosis is so far incurable. The only cure is prevention. Thinking physicians therefore tries to patients they care, before the procedure to protect.

According to current knowledge, atherosclerosis causes two things:

  1. Oxidation of fats in the blood.
  2. Unclear immune pathological process .

Oxidation of fats in the blood again requires two things:

  1. Oxygen
  2. Fats in the blood

They are therefore available to the three parameters to control the development of atherosclerosis: oxygen, blood fat and immunity.

Oxygen

In terms of the amount of oxygen in the blood of the organism activity would pragmatically divided into three modes: (a) a sleep, (b) a stationary mode, (c) a regime of physical exertion. In sleep, the oxygen content in the blood decreased - the body at night saves and fixes. The rest, such as during non-stressful mental work or light physical activity (walking) is the oxygen content at the basic watchful level. The regime of physical exertion (physical work, training) the oxygen content increased the intensity of physical activity.

Fats in the blood

Roughly speaking, blood fat droplets are of two types: LDL (low density lipoprotein - low density lipoprotein) and HDL (high density lipoprotein - high density lipoprotein). Opulently they are called "lipoprotein", but in reality they are just small beads of fat with a little protein, which prevents them from coalescing. It's like the fat in milk, only blood we have it less. HDL droplets are "good" (cause atherosclerosis) because they are small. Have a high density because there only little fat (fat is lightweight, tough protein). LDL is bad because it's the real, big (and therefore light) drops of fat. Into the bloodstream are released mainly from the small intestine. Blood in the portal vein is a high fat meal and milky. Portal vein, as we know, leads to the liver, where it again branches into capillaries and where they LDL droplets become a chemical feedstock for the liver cells, however should not be too large to pass into circulation. But this seems to some extent going and LDL droplets large circulation contribute to the development of atherosclerosis.

Immune factors for atherosclerosis

Počinkem to the development of atherosclerosis deposits (atheroma) seems to oxidative stress. But that also causes an inflammatory process that leads to the actual development of atheroma. It is not entirely clear what the interplay droplets LDL oxidation and inflammation in the vessel wall, but it is known that both of these two factors are mutually reinforcing and that both are necessary in order to develop atherosclerosis ( Hajjar2013bri ). Roughly it proceeds so that the oxidized LDL droplets, and collected on the wall of the arteries (or initially collected and then to oxidize). Clutter summon their chores macrophages that cleaning can not handle, the oxidized fat droplets with desire and then under a microscope appear as filled foam ( "foam cells"). These macrophages then die and absorbed mess poured back into the vessel wall. (Zaoxidované fats are what can be found in homes on the wall near the stove, where the frying pan. When it got cleaned, also sometimes feel that, from the die.) This happens over and over to locally grown atherosclerotic deposit formed especially cholesterol, which is the most durable of all fats.

atherogenesis
Aterogenze

We must realize that the development of atherosclerosis in this process must happen something wrong. It is normal that the vascular wall sometimes dirty and macrophages that he come clean. There must be some other factor that causes the routine cleaning fails and creates the atheroma. We do not know what this factor is, but it seems that adaptogens affecting overall "inflammation" (susceptibility to inflammation of the body), and those with a cytoprotective effect can have a positive effect against the formation and progression of atherosclerosis.

So how do you protect against atherosclerosis?

It has a short answer to this question is: I do not know. Popular statins and reducing cholesterol levels seem to go off and work more on results and side effect than the actual cause of atherosclerosis. Popular antioxidants are indeed very important , but our body already knows about them, so if you eat healthy, we do not think about them excessively. Popular exercises have also not what it used to. Aerobic overload, as shown, leading to oxidative damage and overloading of the organism ( Tsai2001odd ) and some "antioxidants" under these conditions is converted to pro-oxidants ( Tomasello2012dar ). Getting the truth behind common insight that he who toils, he is Udrea. On the other hand, zero exercise is also bad, because most people today (in terms of early man) do not exercise at all. It is therefore not clear what advice, in addition to general recommendations back to nature and naturalness.

Atherosclerosis and cholesterol

Because cholesterol is quantitatively the most atheroma, this was long suspected of having atherosclerosis causes. It turns out, however, that atherosclerosis is (as I wrote above) oxidation and immune connection. It is possible hypothesis that cholesterol accumulates in atheroma simply because most resistant to degradation. Harmfulness cholesterol and effectiveness of statins demonstrated on herbivorous rabbit ( Shen2013eae and many other similar studies) is not automatically vztažitelná to humans. It seems that cholesterol in the diet so far do not have to worry about making butter and eggs are again healthy meals ( Fernandez2012rdc , Trapani2012rdc ). Statins are important only in certain risk groups ( Koh2009ctp ).

Atherosclerosis, stress and smoking

Although I think that this fight against smoking today exaggerating, it is necessary to say that smoking is demonstrably connected with damage to the cardiovascular system and the smoking ban is absolutely indicated in all cardiac events. All forms of smoking, including pipes, cigars and marijuana harms blood vessels ( Katsiki2013svr ). Damaging effect on blood vessels has both smoke (tar, carbon monoxide) and nicotine ( Leone2013vpf ). But I'm prepared to say land that epidemiological studies on the relationship between smoking and disease do not have the statistical weight as it seems. I will not quote anything, just say what I think: I would begin by being known that patients with schizophrenia smoke. And I think they smoke because it helps them and urge experimentalists to investigate this hypothesis. I suppose that this hypothesis is true. Furthermore, I know that smoke and people prone to stress. This could also explain why a lot of smoke prisoners and workers lower categories. It is logical that the stress on the human psyche operates rather negatively, so what helps the mentally ill, can help even healthy mentally stressed. We further stress that more people suffer from poor living conditions. And - now I come to the conclusion - I think that as part of the cardio-vascular damage observed in smokers may possibly stress from poor conditions in which they found smokers and that smoking accustomed. If the stress caused by poor living situations, as part of vascular injury may be responsible for a cheap meal and poor diet. So I appeal to researchers in studies on the harmful effects of smoking have taken into account the possibility that some smoking only correlates with poor living situation that is actually causing health damage. This is a problem that banning nicotine resolved.

Atherosclerosis, food and exercise

Atherosclerosis is starting pollution vessel wall oxidized LDL fat droplets, which mainly come from food. Empirically, in turn knows that most atheroma formation in the places where the maximum oxygen content, whereas the veins where oxygen is already consumed, the atheroma does not form at all. Another factor is the speed and turbulence of blood flow. Vessels with the highest oxygen content and a high flow rate, such as coronary arteries of the heart, therefore the first to suffer the formation of atheroma.

I therefore advise that we do not run a marathon with the small intestine full of mutton fat? Especially when he himself sometimes I run and swim on a full stomach? Probably yes. So do not run a full stomach. But I must admit that personally I feel that my small intestine does not need this advice. I feel that filled my stomach while jogging precisely regulates what and how quickly the desert farther into the small intestine, which in turn controls what and how quickly the desert into the portal vein. Or should advise overall saving, less physical activity at all, as today some doctors say? Or eat less, as recommended for many years to extend life?

Atherosclerosis can navigate and treat it adaptogens

About adaptogens with preventive and curative effect against atherosclerosis writing in detail on the general google heart disease . An extraordinary position in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular problems is ginseng .

The protective effect of ginseng against atherosclerosis

From the standpoint of scientific medicine ginseng was relatively old its systemic anti-inflammatory effect and protective effect on blood vessels (mainly through a signaling cascade NO ) .Účinek directly on atherosclerosis was experimentally demonstrated relatively recently in the ginsenoside Rb 1 ( He2007peg , Xu2011egr ) and ginsenoside Rd ( Li2011gpc ). Strong indications possible effect against atherosclerosis exist even ginsenoside Rg 2 ( Cho2013gri ) and compound K ( Lee2011gmc , Park2013cai ). The effect directly on the atherosclerosis of coronary arteries has been experimentally found in the ginsenoside Rb 1 ( Zhou2005grb ).

Other adaptogens with effect against atherosclerosis

  • Ginseng notoginseng : Long-term low-dose Notoginseng were rats with high fat diet positive effect on blood cholesterol and LDL amount of fat particles in the blood ( Ji2007hem ). Specific effect against atherosclerosis Notoginseng has been found experimentally in rabbits ( Liu2010pns ) rats ( Joo2010isp ) and ApoE knockout mice with a genetic predisposition to atherosclerosis ( Liu2009tpn , Li2011gpc ).
  • Rhodiola : positive results from atherosclerosis of diabetic rats ( Zhang2006msc ). Rhodiola Salidrosid acts against atherosclerosis ( Zhang2012sda ) cholesterolovému and tissue damage ( Guan2012pes ) in mice. Rhodiola sacred (Rhodiola sacra) has a positive effect on the heart in hypertensive rats ( Yang2013ers ).
  • It is possible that sedoulek Japanese , traditionally used in the treatment of heart diseases , also has activity against atherosclerosis ( Zhang2011mdi ).
  • Scutellaria baicalensis : its flavonoids and Bajkalin geniposid of jasmine gardenia (Gardenia jasminoides), drug-treated with experimental atherosclerosis in vivo ( Liu2014oab ).

In the list will not continue, because atherosclerosis is a disease of lifestyle and virtually every kind of vegetables or healthy food somehow reduces the risk of lifestyle diseases.

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