Cancer is the leading cause of death in the civilized world. A common feature of cancer is that the population own cells begins to multiply uncontrollably to the detriment of the organism. This proliferation may after a certain number of generations desist - then it is a benign tumor (benign), such as moles, adenoma, intestinal polyps and small tumors inside the body, whose existence we do not realize. In contrast, the cells of malignant (malignant) tumors never stop dividing and often have the ability metastasis - the spread to distant parts of the body. Cancer broadly refers to any malignant disease. In a narrower sense the cancer is a malignant tumor arising from the epithelium of the skin or mucosa - carcinoma. Less common sarcoma is a malignant tumor of connective tissue.
Healthy cells have many barriers against unlimited division. It's as contact inhibition: Cell stops sharing when it is not about space. Then there is the Hayflick limit: most cells can still grow, but it is limited to a few tens of division. Most of the body (somatic) cell has the ability to divide permanently disabled - are terminally differentiated. The ability to share in the body retains only a small fraction of cells - stem cells. They are activated by injury, but in some tissues are still active. The cancer are therefore prone those tissues which grow into adulthood and regenerate - skin, mucosa, mammary gland, gonads ...
Compared somatic cells are undifferentiated cancer cells. They resemble stem cells - they seem young, dividing and preparing to create something useful tissue, but this goal will never grow up. Tumor cells are primarily initially behave almost normally and hold and their original function. Because of this, for example by pituitary tumors, nadobliček and other endocrine glands occurs hormonal disturbances, since tumor cells are still engaged in its original occupation - hormone production. Tumor cells also especially at the beginning behave great desire to differentiate, ie. Really create tissue for whose creation is prepared according to your opinion. Often just a slight chemical stimulus to a cancer cell has decided to grow up and become functional, terminally differentiated somatic cells ( Kawamata2006dts ).
During cancer cancerous cells their inhibitions and decent behavior gradually lose. It also teaches escape recognition by the immune system, lose their ability to apoptosis and the will to differentiate and gradually adapt to chemotherapy drugs which the doctor trying to cure cancer. The development of cancer is such a stochastic process of biological evolution extending in a population of cancer cells. To understand the phenomenon of malignant degeneration is important to realize that every cancer:
- Based originating from a single cell of a particular tissue.
- In its multiplication proceeds stochastically evolutionary leaps towards greater malignancy.
- Sooner or later it will compete with the host immune system.
Of these properties also shows why it is so difficult to treat cancer. Cancer cells is initially almost not different from normal cells and it is hard to think of toxin that would selectively kill without at the same time damages the entire body. The ability of cancer cells subject to evolution in turn means that even if the doctor using a substance or treatments keep the disease at bay temporarily, cancer cells can develop resistance over time and the substance / method stops working. The relapse enough to attempt to treat one survived only viable cancer cell.
Finally, a remark that people are doing in terms of anti-cancer immunity very well. Man is naturally long-lived animal and cancer is better equipped than most vertebrates. Over the life of our immune system detects and destroys dozens of tumors, without bothering to inform us. While mice and rats dying from cancer after only one year, dogs and cats get cancer even after 5 years, the human immune system allows us relatively safe from cancer survive five decades of active life. That is our advantage, but on the other hand, it also means that when the doctor arrives patients who have developed malignancy, so his immune system had failed in his role and his best chance to apply anti-cancer immunity missed. The risk of cancer increases sharply in old age, which in humans comes relatively steeply over six decades of life. Susceptibility to cancer in old age is increasing not only because they carry the DNA damage accumulated over a lifetime, but also due to the overall deterioration of the body and immunity. The stochastic nature of malignant degeneration and disease course is the reason why the cancer appears only in some people and different patients progressing at different speeds.
For the reasons already mentioned the prevention and treatment of cancer always a difficult problem. Medical advances in cancer treatment, despite the costs incurred for its research modest. For some cancers, the likelihood of cure increased slightly (prostate tumor, seminoma, malignant melanomas, lung cancer, colon, stomach and esophagus), others not (glioblastoma, hepatoma). Hazardous remain female cancers (breast, ovarian and cervical cancer). Cancer treatment has three standard components:
- Surgical treatment - resection of the tumor (bearings).
- Cytostatic treatment - the destruction of tumor cell selective poisons or radiation.
- Supportive treatment - body regeneration and strengthening of the immune system
Besides it applies bioléčba (imunoléčba), hormonal therapy, treatment with differentiation induction etc., but the above three modalities remain crucial. Adaptogens and anticancer mushrooms, which are warn, is one of supportive therapy. While surgical and cytostatic therapy acts destructively on the tumor and body, adaptogens support regeneration and renewing damaged immune system. Anticancer fungi have direct antitumor effects as a stimulatory effect on the cytotoxic immunity and pro-apoptotic effect on cancer cells. Research on these drugs re extensive and below it to provide a reference.
Cancer cells from healthy cells is very difficult to distinguish. Basically, the only reliable distinguishing feature is that the cancer cells to divide indefinitely. And this affects their property cytostatic treatment.
Cytostatic effect is generally affect anyone who harms or kills dividing cells, but is relatively harmless for the rest, dividing cells. This property has an example of radiation. Ionizing radiation damages most dividing cells and therefore the radiation used to destroy tumors. More specific effect on dividing cells but have chemical cytostatics - mitotic poisons used in chemotherapy. It is for example 5-fluorouracil, which inhibits the synthesis of thymidine - one of the four building blocks of DNA in the cell has no other use. Many antineoplastic agents used are of natural origin: Vinca alkaloids (vinblastine, vincristine), taxanes from yew, podophyllotoxin, camptothecin, a bacterial streptomycin etc.
Unfortunately, in addition to cancer cells in the body divided by many other cells and they are damaged by cytostatic treatment just like a tumor. They are the epithelial cells of the skin, mucous membranes, growth zone of the hair roots, nail beds and also hematopoietic stem cell, which arise out of the red and white blood cells. Cytostatic treatment is a frightening experience in which patients suffer enormous fatigue, nausea, loss of appetite and loss of fertility. Hair falls out and there are lines on the nails (Beauovy line). One of the worst consequences of the severe damage to the immune system destruction of white blood cells.
Targeted cancer therapies
Doctors from the outset cytostatic therapy tried this somehow confined to cancer cells. For example, targeted radiotherapy irradiates the tumor bearing, while the rest of the body receives a relatively small dose. For chemotrapie since the 50s of the 20th century, carried out targeted perfusion of affected organs. But these methods fail with extensive metastases. In these cases, there are now called. Biological therapy (bioléčba) more correctly immunological treatment.
Bioléčba cancer is nothing new. Long ago there was an effort to create a cancer vaccine. The main problem is that the patient's own immune system is usually severely damaged by cytostatic therapy. In today imunoléčbě therefore antibodies against cancer cells are produced artificially, and the patient was administered Intravenous. This is a good commercial strategy, but not miraculous method. The doctor only an imitation of the immune system of the patient and when it faces the challenge, in which no natural immunity of the patient once failed.
Very promising is the combination of antibodies to α-radioisotopes, which then locally irradiating a small tumor deposits (targeted alpha therapy). Targeted alpha therapy has been dedicated to, for example, no. 3 journal Current Radiopharmaceuticals September 2008 , from specific publications such. Tolmachev2007rth (lutetium 177 + HER2 antibodies against breast cancer) and Liepe2009a2a (Alpharadin, radium 223 prostate cancer). Research activity in this field intensively progresses, for a review see Gudkov2016trt .
Supportive therapy is not a cure for cancer secondary. While other illnesses can be relied on natural regeneration capacity, cytostatic treatment of cancer patients' immunity and regenerative capacity thoroughly destroyed. In the body during chemotherapy recruit new and novel stem cell that is attempting to regenerate and are yet destroyed. The patient for a few months older physiologically for years. Likewise suffering from the immune system in which they are destroyed by the base of the parent cells of the bone marrow.
Adaptogens type of ginseng protects against radiation and chemical damage and help with recovery. These their effects are scientifically documented, but it is appropriate to ask whether analogy will also protect cancer cells. According to the experts, it is not - specific adaptogens protect not only cancer cells, but on the contrary activate anti-cancer immunity and directly causing apoptosis of cancer cells. Direct effect against cancer cells is significant for anticancer fungi - fungal adaptogens, typical of which is lingzhi mushroom. Again, the question is whether scientists investigating adaptogens suffer bias towards his subject. This question exists and is continuously not only solved with adaptogens, but also in every other branch of science. Miraculous cure for cancer exists and it is not even adaptogens. And they may have limitations that prevent scientists invent a reliable cure for cancer.
Research of ginseng in cancer treatment is focused on the 4 types of effects: (1) preventive, (2) protection and regeneration during irradiation and chemotherapy, (3) an immunomodulatory and (4) direct antitumor, which are further divided into three subcategories.
1. Preventive Effects: From the viewpoint of preventing the use of ginseng negatively correlated with the incidence of cancer ( Shin2000cpp ) and preventive effect against cancer can be attributed to a specific panaxosidům ( Shibata2001ccp , Wang2008icp , Choi2013bbc ). Randomized clinical trials confirming this phenomenon is Yun2010npe . Factors reducing the risk of cancer may include anti-inflammatory effect of ginseng ( Hofseth2007ict ).
2. The protective and regenerative effects in the treatment of cancer are fully applicable adaptogenic effects of ginseng against radiation damage . Ginseng during irradiation protects cells, promotes tissue regeneration and especially the immune system ( Yonezawa1976rri , Takeda1981rri , Yonezawa1981rri , Takeda1982rri , Yonezawa1985rri ). According to clinical studies, ginseng improves the quality of life for cancer patients and reduce side effects of chemotherapy ( Kim2006esg , Yennurajalingam2015hag ).
3rd immunomodulatory effects: According Takei2008dcp has immunomodulatory effect of ginseng working toward cytotoxic responses. Increases the activity of NK cells ( Yun1993iat , Jang2015pnk , Takeda2015ink ) and macrophages ( Wang2010ita ) and contributes to anti-cancer immunity.
4. Direct tumor effects: U panaxosidů detected direct effects against tumors by Dr. Lars Christensen divided into 3 groups: (1) a cytostatic effect, (2) reduction of malignancy, and (3) reduction in growth of blood vessels in tumors ( christensen2009gcb ). Recent reports of antitumor effects of ginseng are Wong2015rag and Wang2016rgc . Cytostatic effect was studied in vitro on cell lines and in vivo in animals. Numerous studies cite not all, randomly picking: Based Wong2010age performed ginseng extract in a mouse model against lung cancer. Ginseng also performed against cells of human gastric carcinoma ( Hwang2015efg ), human gallbladder cancer ( Wu2015ers ) and human cells of acute lymphoblastic leukemia ( Xia2016iap ). Ginseng metabolite compound A acted against hepatoma cells ( Song2010imc ) ginsenoside F2 against glioblastoma rat model ( Shin2012aeg ) gssd. Rg 3 against the human myeloma cells ( Li2016imm ) and acidic polysaccharides ginseng improved results cytostatic treatment of melanoma in a mouse model ( Shin2004eae ). Gssd. Rg 3 and the compound to inhibit angiogenesis in tumors of the lung, stomach and ovaries ( Wang2015gmc ). The compound acts by inhibiting p38 MAP kinase ( Jeong2010cib ) and the regulation of sphingosine kinase-1 ( Shin2014gci ). Somewhat less inhibitory effect on angiogenesis is gssd. Rb 1 ( Papapetropoulos2007gor , Wang2015gmc ). Another panaxosidy (e.g. e.g. gssd. Rg 1 ), but have on the growth of blood vessels opposite effects ( Sengupta2004may ).
Though adaptogens promotes as a scientist I have to admit that despite all the research usefulness or irreplaceable ginseng cancer is not scientifically proven, especially when this does not prove his power horrific side-effects. Publications that quote, I highly recommend you read, but if you decide to ginseng try, do not do it for scientific reasons, but for some others, such as respect for unscientific TCM : Ginseng is in developed countries (Taiwan), one of the most common components of mixtures prescribed in TCM clinics for patients with cancer ( Lai2012ppc ).
Caption obviously not meant seriously. Lingzhi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum) is an adaptogen which a large quantity of 100% nezázračných triterpenoid saponins - ganoderové acid, ganoderenové acid, lucialdehydy, ganoderioly and more (see Paterson2006gtf ). A total of 315 triterpenoids in the genus Ganoderma describes overview Xia2014crs , which is more than 182 triterpenoids described in the genus Panax ( christensen2009gcb ). Reishi further comprises typically fungal β-glucans, polysaccharides and proteoglycans. For the wearer anticancer effects of Reishi are considered as polysaccharides and other substances (eg. As well as polypeptides). Lingzhi mushroom has no side effects ( Wachtelgalor2004gll , Kwok2005prd ).
Reishi promotes cytotoxic immune response ( Radwan2011air ). The extract and pure β-glucan (fukogalaktan) increases outpouring of IL-23 on dendritic cells and T cells induces differentiation of Th17 ( Yoshida2012pit ). Polysaccharides Reishi accelerate the proliferation of bone marrow macrophages and increase the production of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12p35, IL-12p40, IL-18, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-12 ( Ji2011ibm ). Ganoderma formosanum activates antitumor immune response in vivo in mice afflicted with cancer ( Wang2014aai ).
Reishi is effective against cell lines of colon cancer in vitro ( Thyagarajan2010tfg , Jedinak2011glt , Hong2004egl ) and limits the malignancy of gastric cancer cells ( Jang2011aae ). Direct cytotoxic effects of specific triterpenoids Reishi comments Xia2014crs . According Min2000tfs ganoderové acid γ, δ, ε, ζ, η, and θ in vitro against cells sarcoma and lung cancer. Ganoderová acid. Jc inhibits the growth of leukemia cells (HL-60) and E ganoderiol growth of breast cancer cells (MCF-7). According Wang2010nga ganoderové acid Mf Mk S and destroys cell lung cancer (95-D) and cervix (HeLa) in concentrations 15-40μM. Ganoderová acid. E and lucidenové acid. N and A is effective against hepatoma cell lines and leukemia ( Wu2001cgl ) ganodermová acid Ja against hepatoma cells ( Li2005gal ). Lucialdehyd B and C ganodermanonol and ganodermanondiol act against cells of lung cancer, mammary cancer, and sarcoma ( Gao2002nta ) luciadiol and ganoderiol F against HeLa cells of cervical cancer ( Cheng2010ctf ), two more specific lanostanoidy against cells leukemia, cervical carcinoma, hepatoma and gastric cancer ( Guan2008clt ). According Ma2012ltf anticancer and ganoderové acids and C 1 and lucialdehydy D and E, all at concentrations of ~ 20μg / ml.
G. lucidum cancer-acted in vivo in mice transplanted with liver cancer ( Chen2010pgl ) and other tumors ( Trajkovic2009apg , Nonaka2006aaa ). G. lucidum was immunostimulatory in vivo and anti-radiation effect ( Gao2005aau , Pang2007pnp ) and prevent the formation and metastasis of lung cancer in mice exposed to carcinogens cyclophosphamide ( Nonaka2008eaf ). G. atrum worked cancer-mouse model ( Zhang2014pfg ). Ganoderová acid T reduces the malignancy of lung cancer cells in vivo ( Chen2010gai ).
Regarding clinical trials, Gao2003egg tested the effect of Reishi polysaccharides on 30 patients with advanced cancer and found an increase in the number of CD56 + cells and NK cell activity. Chen2006mir found in 41 patients with advanced colorectal cancer treated with Reishi increase of CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD56 + lymphocytes. Sun2014pal again found improvement of immune parameters in patients with lung cancer using Reishi. The study Oka2010wef in 96 patients (+ 102 controls) found that Reishi used for 12 months prevents the development of colorectal adenomas, neoplasms of which may develop cancer of the colon and rectum. When taking Reishi are known cases of complete cure, Suprasert2014ccg reports on five such patients.
Even more than ginseng with Reishi is true that, regardless of the number of enthusiastic scientists recommending this mushroom to the attention of physicians ( Sliva2003glr , Radwan2011air , Cheng2015glc , Jin2016glr ), the funding of clinical trials for which has not yet impressed, so the main guide again remains quack TCM for which is Reishi (ling-chi) magical cure and cultural symbol.
In assessing the anticancer mushrooms are worth avoiding extremes. Oncologist nor the patient from them should not wait for a miracle. When it comes to medical patients who have developed malignancies, it is clear that his immune system had its best chance missed. Moderate or even strong boost immunity not usually enough to cure. On the other hand, it is a misconception that anti-cancer mushrooms are ineffective and do not deserve his epithet. Such an opinion in the light of available scientific studies to stand ( Popovic2013mcu ). List of species which mention is not complete or closed:
- Trametes versicolor
- versicolor camphor
- Inonotus obliquus - CagA (overview of its anticancer effects is Song2013pua )
- Ohňovec plowing
- Choros Oris
Group anticancer hub is not clear-cut, as well as common edible mushrooms are not specifically enhance anti-cancer immunity ( Patel2012rdm , Feeney2014mhs ). Specifically, it is e.g. oyster , shiitake (Lentinus edodes, Shiitake), Grifola frondosa (Grifola frondosa, maitake), spiky coral (Hericium erinaceus), but also ordinary button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus, A. blazei), see Xu2012cpe , Martin2010ccs . Asian mushrooms (Shiitake, maitake), while no more effective than ours, bearer of nonspecific anti-cancer effects are in fact common fungal agents: β-glucans ( Temizoz2016vap ), ergosterol ( Li2015epf ) and fiber. Information that our Boletus, respectively. the parasite nedohub zlatovýtrusý carcinogenic is false .
Other adaptogens to prevention and supportive treatment of cancer
Cancer is a popular topic in science. Paradoxically, because of excessive popularity of the topic it is difficult to actually identify effective anticancer adaptogens. To illustrate, database anticancer effects of herbs CancerHSP ( Tao2015cah ) contains more than 2,400 potentially cancer-plant etnobotanická database, Dr. Duke and database TCM herbs TCMSP ( Ru2014tds ) to add hundreds of herbs, but it is not clear which of them act strongly and that only slightly. Weak and non-specific anti-cancer effects are in fact herbs and mushrooms very common, but to fulfill the hopes of cancer patients, unfortunately, not enough. Certain anticancer effects were detected in almost all popular adaptogens, all of which offer a more or less random selection:
- In the genus Panax species have American ginseng , ginseng notoginseng etc. composition similar to P. ginseng and analogous anticancer effects (see summaries Wang2015cap , Wang2016pap , Wang2008prg , He2012aap ).
- Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) from fruits goji (Goji) promote the proliferation of spleen cells ( Peng2001sci , Gan2004iaa ) and T lymphocytes ( Chen2008atl , Gan2003ppc ) recovery of immunity after chemotherapy ( Gong2005tel ) and directly act against cells of liver cancer, and prostate cancer ( Chao2006hwe , Liu2000eia , Li2009lbi ).
- Balsam apple bitter (bitter cucumber) has besides the known potential against diabetes and obesity preventive potential against cancer, see the reports Raina2016pbm , Dandawate2016bmp and Nerurkar2010bma .
- AT cicimku Date Fruit was found anticancer effects on the liver in vitro ( huang2007maa , huang2009czj ).
- Hailing snodárná has documented antitumor effects ( Dar2015pow ), for example, due to its inhibitory effect on the growth of blood vessels ( Mohan2004wip ).
- Děhel Chinese (Chinese angelica) had anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo ( Cheng2004aea , Tsai2005aea , Kan2008sae etc.) The polysaccharides danced against three cancer models in mice in vivo ( Shang2003esa ). Děhel China is Taiwan's most commonly prescribed TCM herb Breast Cancer ( Lai2012ppc ), but from a scientific point of view its effect is unclear ( Chang2006mhe ).
- Anticancer effects basil sacred discusses overview Baliga2013osh .
- Anthraquinones and polysaccharides from Aloe Vera act cancer-vitro ( Xu2016rse , Luo2014caw , Chen2016ent , Chihara2015eae , Hussain2015avi , Yonehara2015ave ) and in vivo ( Shimpo2014iel , Pan2013iag and others), a good overview of the anticancer properties of aloe is Harlev2012apa , anthraquinone aloe-emodin is devoted to an overview Chen2014pae .
According Lai2012ppc TCM practice in Taiwan except ginseng and děhele often used plants Vladimiria souliei, Amomum cardamomum, pinelii trifoliate (Pinellia ternata) milkvetch membranous , forsythia (Forsythia) and Jujube . According to the survey Radomskalesniewska2015apr has an effect against the growth of blood vessels in tumors Rhodiola pink , purple coneflower , aloe vera and Leadwort Ceylon (Plumbago zeylanica). According to the survey Safarzadeh2014hmi further cancer-operate ginger true , saffron , turmeric and xanthorrhizol of kurkumovníku , resveratrol, quercetin and genistein from legumes, bajkalein and other flavonoids from Šišák Baikal , řemdihák fuzzy (Uncaria tomentosa), Isatis tinctoria (Isatis tinctoria), pagoda tree yellowish (Sophora flavescens) and scavengers red (Tabebuia impetiginosa).
The vitriolic nature of cytostatics
In contrast to natural adaptogens mitotic poisons of some poisonous plants. They kill both cancer as any other dividing cells and in cancer therapy are commonly used. It's not adaptogens, because a healthy body severely damaging. I mention it only for completeness, they are all highly dangerous poisons. Among the frequently used include vinblastine and vincristine vinca minor (Vinca minor), taxol (paclitaxel) from yew (Taxus baccata), camptothecin from kamptoteky ostrolisté (Camptotheca acuminata), podophyllotoxin from noholistu štítnatého (Podophyllum peltatum). In this category are probably very promising trojkřídlec wilfordův (Tripterygium wilfordii), slightly poisonous mistletoe (Viscum album) with its proteoglycans (lectins) and other plants.