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Colorectal cancer and rectal cancer

Colorectal cancer and rectal cancer

Cancer of the colon and rectum (colorectal cancer) is one of the most common cancers. Colorectal carcinoma is common both in the world ( Labianca2010cc ) and especially within the Czech Republic. It affects men and women to the same extent and its frequency is growing. In 2006, Czechs ranked second in Europe in this cancer.

How and why is it?

Like all other carcinomas, colon and rectum cancer develops by malignant cell epithelial - lining of the intestinal mucosa. Due to the aggressive chemical environment inside the intestine, cell DNA damage and subsequent uncontrolled cancer growth occur. Cancer almost always comes from a single cell, but its occurrence is not accidental - it depends, for example, on the correct diet and the presence of carcinogens in the environment. Mucosal cells are particularly susceptible to cancer because they have to retain their ability to divide even in adulthood. The colon and rectum tend to be affected so often because of the presence of the final chemical products of digestion that are poisonous to living cells. As a result, the likelihood of getting colon or rectum cancer is reduced by the simplest, continuous and regular emptying .

For this purpose, our diet contains enough fiber of both types - insoluble (vegetable cellulose) and soluble (fruit pectins, slime, agar, etc.). The fiber will simply accelerate the passage of the stool through the large intestine, thus shortening the length of time the poisonous fumes affect Intestinal mucosa. Vegetables and fruits additionally contain vitamin C and other antioxidants that protect not only the large intestine and the rectum, but also whole body cells from poisons. Therefore, it is not necessary to eat bread or pastry for meat dishes, but it is necessary to cut them through a suitable portion of vegetables and fruits, and not just steamed cabbage.

Colorectal carcinoma diseases

Most cancers of the colon and rectum come from the epithelium - these are carcinomas (ie, cancer in the narrow sense of the word). However, other, less common types of tumors are present: sarcomas, lymphomas and carcinoids of the intestinal mucosa. But most people will be more interested in diseases that increase the risk of colon and rectum cancer. It is mainly chronic inflammation of the colon (ulcerative colitis) and Crohn's disease ( Qi2010agp ). Another risk factor is obesity, lack of exercise, and poor fiber diets.

Malignant overgrowth also threatens the intestinal polyps, which are benign growths from the intestinal wall similar to the nails on the skin. In the intestine, however, the stools pass through their constant irritation and dissemination, which requires further healing and associated mitotic activation of already abnormal polyp cells. It can be said that polyps cells carry the most carcinogenic burden. Cancer of the colon and rectum is partly hereditary. More precisely, he has a high degree of heredity. If both of your parents suffered from it, you are a unique risk person. This cancer does not occur at a young age. It usually appears to be over 50, but then its danger is growing rapidly.

Symptoms of colon and rectum cancer

Colorectal cancer is insidious in that it does not manifest at first. Even the relatively advanced stages cause only difficult-to-identify problems, so that this cancer can be detected only by preventive examination (colonoscopy) in time. Upper stage changes in stool (constipation, diarrhea, etc.), an unpleasant feeling of abdominal pain, weight loss, fatigue, vomiting and possibly bright red blood in faeces. But blood in stool is a late and unreliable symptom. Blood in the stool is the most common cause of hemorrhoids. Hemorrhoids are bright red blood present on toilet paper that you wipe or on the stool surface. This type of bleeding is not a reason for panic. On the contrary, people over the age of 50 should be afraid of this cancer even if they do not have blood in the stool. In 2014, a comprehensive colorectal screening program was introduced in the Czech Republic.

Treatment of colorectal carcinoma

In the treatment of colorectal cancer, all modalities used in the treatment of cancer are applied . It is mainly surgical resection of intestine or rectum and cytostatic therapy (chemotherapy / radiotherapy). Surgical treatment consists in removing the affected part of the intestine and surrounding lymph nodes. Cytostatic treatment is mainly used in cancer of the colon and rectum chemotherapy (fluorouracil cytostatic). These treatment methods are widely used. There is also a recommendation to reduce the consumption of animal fats, red meat, fried, baked, grilled and smoked meals and, on the other hand, increase the intake of fiber (mainly vegetables, legumes and fruits), calcium, vitamin C and folic acid. Less well-known is the possibility of using adaptogens and anticancer fungi that are unnecessarily dubious.

Adaptogens in the treatment of colorectal carcinoma

If the treatment of cancer is divided into surgical, cytostatic and supportive, adaptogens will generally be classified as supportive. But that does not mean that the adaptogens are inferior to the scalpel and can be waved over by them as "the supplements that all promote for everything". Specific, centuries of medical research of the plants found have specific effects against particular types of cancer. The bearers of their knowledge were once a popular healers and healers who did not register their knowledge altogether. Therefore, the right herbal combinations to be used in colon and rectal cancer are preserved mainly in Traditional Chinese Medicine, which has been writing for nearly 2000 years. A specific combination of TČM against colorectal cancer can be found at the end of this article. (This does not mean that Europe is a hermalistic inferiority to China, on the contrary, the absence of wild ginseng in our flora may be the result of its intense collection in the past and anthropogenic extermination, not only in the most remote forests of Siberia, but it is just my speculation. The effects of adaptogens in colorectal cancer are divided into 3 groups:

  1. Regeneration of tissues (after surgery) and immune system (after chemotherapy).
  2. Immunomodulatory effect stimulating anti-cancer immunity.
  3. Direct cytotoxic effect on colorectal carcinoma cells.

Due to the large number of research papers, it is difficult to find out which adaptogens are actually effective in colorectal cancer. By studying literature, I have formed the view that ginseng-type adaptogens are mainly important for protection and regeneration, whereas sputum-like medicinal sponges are immunomodulatory and cytotoxic, but their effects are to some extent overlapping.

The regenerative, immunomodulatory and cytotoxic effects of ginseng, gloss and other adapogenic are real, and I refer them to the extent that I managed to capture them. But as inappropriate as the underestimation of adaptogens, it would be to put hope in them as "miraculous drugs" as it used to be in the past. Adaptogens, in principle, do not contain poisons that could directly kill the cancer cells. Adaptogens to cancer cells settle down and activate their apoptotic pathway. Because of this effect, cancer cells soon get resistance. Neither immune enhancement by immunomodulatory adaptogens may be sufficient to cure. It is necessary to realize that in the developed carcinoma, the immune system of the patient has basically failed first. It is not contradictory to claim that the effects of adaptogen against cancer cells are real and powerful, although the overall prognosis of colorectal cancer is only slightly improved.

Ginseng in colorectal cancer

Ginseng is often used in the TČM in the treatment of cancer ( Lai2012ppc ). The effect is attributed to its saponins ( panaxosides ), polysaccharides and other substances (alcohols panaxynol , panaxydol etc.). Most saponins are ginsenosides Rg 3 , Rh 2 and other little glycosylated panaxosides and their aglycone. A recent review of the anticancer effects of ginseng is Wang2016rgc , the effects of ginseng on colon and rectal cancer are reviewed by Wang2008prg and Vayghan2014ptr .

A randomized clinical trial documenting the preventive effect of ginseng against cancer is Yun2010npe . The mechanisms of the antitumor effect of ginseng ( Shin2000cpp , Shibata2001ccp , Wang2008prg , Vayghan2014ptr , Choi2013bbc , Wang2016rgc ) are gradually being elucidated . Unfortunately , all the works can not be quoted.

Particularly anticancer-effective seems to be ginseng notoginseng , attention is again focused on American ginseng ( Sun2011rnh ). From the point of view of the effectiveness of ginseng, especially against colon and rectal cancer, its anti-inflammatory effect is very important - colon inflammation is a risk factor for colorectal carcinoma. This is documented by Keum2003ieg , Hofseth2007ict , Jin2008ags , Xie2009vva , Yu2015aga , Poudyal2012hfa , Wang2016aga , Dougherty2011ags and many others . The ginseng also protects the colon against intraperitoneal or oral carcinogens ( Poudyal2012hfa , Yu2015aga , Dougherty2011ags ).

Ginseng also directly inhibits colorectal carcinoma cell division in vitro on commonly used lines of this cancer (HT-29, HCT-116, SW-480, LoVo, and others). This effect, though easily documented, is not such a clinical guideline as the presence of ginseng in the clinically used combinations of TCM against colorectal cancer. However, some of the many studies of this type - growth retardation and apoptosis induction ( He2012aap , Liang2010otf , Wang2009mpi , Wang2009aed ), limitation of invasiveness ( Seo2011rge , Park2011fge , Poudyal2013krm , Hsieh2016epn ) and an increase in the effect of standard cytostatics ( Wang2007nea , Wang2007cep and other).

Glossy in colorectal cancer

Glossy gloss has as its main active substances triterpenoids and proteoglycan polysaccharides, ie the same classes of substances as are effective in ginseng. A total of 315 different triterpenoids ( Xia2014crs ) have been described in the genus Ganoderma , which is even more so than ginseng. It is a model mushroom adaptogen. Glossy Glossy is a traditional Asian medicine and preventative against cancer in general and colorectal cancer specifically.

Against colon and rectal cancer, both directly and indirectly stimulate the immune system ( Sliva2006glc ). It also works against Crohn's disease ( Liu2015aeg ) and inhibits the development of intestinal polyps ( Oka2010wef ). The direct effect of glansin against colon and rectal cancer is investigated on cell lines as with other adaptogens. According to Hong2004egl , the gloss cell apoptosis of the HT-29 cell line was effective, the particular effective triterpenoid being ganodermanontriol and the like ( Jedinak2011glt , Thyagarajan2010tfg , Hong2004egl ). The polysaccharides of the glans have an effect against LoVo ( Liang2015imi ), HCT-116 ( Liang2014glp , Liang2015imi ), HT-29 ( Thyagarajan2010tfg ) colorectal carcinoma lines and also against experimental colon cancer in vivo in a mouse model ( Jedinak2011glt ).

Other adaptogens with effect on colorectal cancer

The anti-cancer effects of adaptogens are intensively investigated, but it is not clear which adaptogens work best against colon and rectal cancer. Anticancer fungi are popular, for example, the Russian bark (saw blade) and other Polyporales ( Popovic2013mcu , Grienke2014emp ). In Japan, colorectal carcinoma is often used by a variety of colorful , wood-sponge fungi, which is also growing rapidly in us. Proteoglycan (PSK) is effective against several types of cancer ( Jimenezmedina2008ipi , Fisher2002aem , Eliza2012eyz ), including colon and rectal cancer. The positive effects of colorectal cancer overcrowd were known from Japanese studies since the 1990s ( Kanoh1994eae , Kobayashi1995aep ).

Against the colon and rectum cancer, there are other sponges. In addition to the aforementioned chagas, it is a pyramid ( Li2004ppp , Song2011ppp ), a camphorian outfit ( Yeh2009cta , Lee2014ncc etc.), a Chinese caterpillar ( Huang2007iec ) and many others. However, it is not clear how specific these fungi effects are. Most fungi have weak, non-specific anti-cancer effects ( Patel2012rdm , Feeney2014mhs ) due to their ergosterol ( Li2015epf ) and β-glucan ( Temizoz2016vap ) content . When I express my mind about the mushrooms unobtrusively, their non-specific anticancer effect can only be the consequence of their violent toxic carcinomas (with their mycotoxins) - a non-specific alert reaction after eating the mushrooms would only be the fear of our body from the cancer threatening After ingestion of moldy foods. This, however, does not change the fact that research into the medicinal effects of fungi lags behind plant research. Even our forest mushrooms deserve the attention of the scientists.

Let's go now to the plants. From plant adaptogens, it has been active against colon and rectum cancer of the right aloe ( Shimpo2014iel , Pan2013iag ), the Chinese angel with its phthalides ( Kan2008sae ) and coumarins ( Zheng2016iea ), euteroic ostriches ( Cichello2015pia ) ( Raina2016scc ), the seeds of Momordika bitter with its high content of eleostearic acid ( Kobori2008aai , Khan2007bgm ), Oldenlandie roztažitá ( Li2015hdw ) and others.

What he prescribes for TBM colorectal cancer in Taiwan

My writing on adaptogens in the treatment of colon and rectal cancer is facilitated by the fact that today's statistical study Chao2014ppc is available that documents the most common herbal regulations in Taiwanese TCM in patients after surgery for colon and rectal cancer. I consider this to be more serious than the insights of experimental and clinical studies so far, so I prefer to give her information. Complementary reading: A general article on cancer adaptogens .

MSc physicians prescribe both standard herbal combinations and individual herbs. This creates a prescription that is (as in our case) personalized and takes into account the age, gender and other specifics of the patient. In Taiwan, the rule is that good MRI doctors also have MUDr. Diploma and therefore prescribe all the medicines. Here I am not trying to pay for visiting such a practitioner, but to inform about the most common TCM herbs and combinations in postoperative colon and rectal cancer. Treatment of specific cases is in the hands of a doctor, self-treatment of colorectal cancer can not be considered!

According to Chao2014ppc , in Taiwanese TČM, colon cancer is most often prescribed from the individual herbs of Oldenlandia and Staphylococcus .

The herbal mixtures are according to Chao2014ppc (1) shiang-sha-liou-jujun-dz-thang (pchin-jin xiang-sha-liu-jun-zi-tang ) (Pchin-jin bu-zhong-yi-qi-tang ).

Composition of the combination 1 (xxxxx): 6 pieces of coconut ( sclerotium poriae cocos ), 3 parts of the rhizoma pinelliae , 2.4 pieces of fruit xxx ( fructus amomi ), see / Formulas / Xiang + Sha + Liu + Jun + Zi + Tang , powder, mix. Usage: Unless otherwise indicated, 5g of powder is taken 2-3 times a day. The powder is drunk with lukewarm water or is drunk mixed in a glass of lukewarm water. The combination can also be purchased as a concentrate in a pharmaceutical form, in which case the dosage will be lower in proportion to the degree of concentration.

Composition of the combination 2 (xxxxx): root xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx ( radix xxx xxx ) X parts, root xxxxxxxxx xxxxxx ( radix xxx xxx ) X parts, root xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx ( radix xxx ) X parts, powder, mix. Usage: Unless otherwise indicated, 5g of powder is taken 2-3 times a day. The powder is drunk with lukewarm water or is drunk mixed in a glass of lukewarm water. The combination can also be purchased as a concentrate in a pharmaceutical form, in which case the dosage will be lower in proportion to the concentration.

It can be stated that in standard TKM combinations, often used in cancerous colon and rectum, there are often Chinese ginseng and ginseng right , which can be used to supplement the treatment. But it is even better to visit a doctor's office of a knowledgeable medical botany or doctor of the TCM, and to follow her advice when choosing and using herbs.

| 24.7.2010