Liver is a key organ of vertebrate organisms that supervises nutrient processing, detoxification of poisons, and maintaining the right level of blood sugars and fats. The liver has its own supply of sugar (glycogen) and serves as the central distribution of sugar (another supply is in the muscles). Liver in the bloodstream is exceptional in that it is included in the so-called portal circulation. The term "gateway" means that blood that has already passed through the capillaries of the intestines and other parts of the digestive tract (stomach, esophagus) does not return directly to the veins and left ventricles but is previously filtered through the liver, Vein. The vein vein has a higher pressure than normal veins - it is something between the artery and the vein, and the blood is usually dyed by the absorbed fat droplets after a hearty meal. The liver acts as a filter that removes these nutrients from the blood, eliminates poisonous poisons, and cleanses waste, including dead blood cells. Liver is also the first stop of those pathogens that manage to penetrate the intestine into the blood. Under these circumstances, it is clear that liver lobes, not unlike the oil filter in the car, are subject to rapid wear and must be replaced as necessary. Therefore, the liver is equipped with a high regenerative ability: The worn-out lobes die and are replaced by newly growing lobes.
There are a large number of poisons and pathogens (hepatitis viruses, etc.) that, from the theoretical and medical point of view, represent a chemical and biological burden (stress in the broad sense of the word) acting on the liver. Hepatoprotective adaptogens then work so that the hepatic adaptation range (the ability of the liver to tolerate this burden) increases. Although hepatic poisons and pathogens are many, their action has one thing in common, and this is the occurrence of inflammation of the liver - hepatitis . Inflammation of the liver leads to wear and necrosis of the liver lobes. The presence of bile dyestuffs in hepatitis blood manifests itself externally as jaundice. After cure, the regeneration phase occurs, when the liver reaches its original functional capacity.
With their regenerative capacity, the liver is an absolutely amazing and unique internal organ. For example, one is able to survive the surgical removal of up to 70% of the liver, which again grows to its original size, which can not be said of any other internal organ. But like everything, the liver's regenerative capacity also has its drawbacks. The first is the susceptibility of regenerating liver to cancer (hepatoma) - because of this, hepatitis viruses are so dangerous. Simply growing cells are easier to make and remain in growth even after complete regeneration. Another drawback of liver regeneration is that, as with any healing, liver regeneration leads to the formation of scar tissue (fibrotic). Many times, repeated necrosis and regeneration eventually cause healing of the liver - cirrhosis.
It is not the purpose of this page to describe all the possible reasons why they can cause liver disease, but to point out underestimated medicinal plants with proven protective effect on the liver - hepatoprotective adaptogens. In their enumeration, I am mainly inspired by TČM and also by our heritage tradition.
Herbs for hepatic protection according to TČM
TČM differs from our herbalist by capturing its knowledge for 2000 years as a book within the framework of a comprehensive paravedical system of medicine, which is still operated by millions of physicians today. In TČM there is therefore a much greater consensus on what herbs are suitable for liver deficiencies. According to the Lam2016hec report, the main hepatoprotective drugs of the TČM are latin sodas, ginseng root, licorice root, fescue fruit, root of Chinese koptis and turmeric root. According to the same review, two standard combinations of herbs are commonly used in the liver at TČM: shiao-cha-hu-tang and shi-kuan-ta-buang .
The root of the andrographis herba is one of the main means of TCM for hepatic and respiratory problems ( Lam2016hec ). It comes from India, where it is also used mainly to protect and promote liver function ( Akbar2011apr ). It has a high content of active glycosides, flavonoids (> 20) and diterpenoid lactones (> 20). Comparison of andrographic, andrographiside and neoandrografiolid with silymarin showed that andrographiside and neoandrografiol are as effective as silymarin and andrografiolide is a little less effective ( Kapil1993aem ).
Ginseng genuine , Japanese ginseng and ginseng notoginseng have traditionally been used in hepatic diseases ( Lam2016hec ) and have demonstrated hepatoprotective effects ( Ng2006pas , Yoshikawa2003snd , Liu1994ech ). The protective effect on the liver also has American ginseng ( Xu2017sgl ) and Vietnamese ginseng , more precisely its major panaxosid majonoside R2 ( Tran2002hem ). Research into hepatoprotective effects has so far focused on ginseng right.
According to Voces1999eas, the standardized G115 ginseng extract increases the antioxidant capacity of the liver and heavily protects the liver of rats under physical strain. The hepatoprotective effect of the ginseng saponin mixture is also confirmed by Martinez1984pea and Bak2012ahe in the experimental poisoning of CCl4, Zhu2015gac by poisoning by cyclophosphamide and Fu2013peg in experimental obstructive jaundice. The protective effect on the liver was found in ginsenoside Rb 1 , compound K ( Lee2005heg ), gssd. Rg 3 and gssd. Rh 2 ( Lee2005he2 ). Heat treatment of ginseng on red ginseng ( ginseng radix rubra ) does not destroy his hepatoprotective potential ( Yokozawa2007tph ). The effect of red ginseng against the aflatoxin B1 poisoning test is described by Kim2011pek , the effect of fermented ginseng against paracetamol liver poisoning is described by Igami2015hef . According to Lo2011gri gssd. Rb 1 counteracts liver cirrhosis and accelerates remodeling of scar tissue according to Tark2015egr.
These are Chinese coptis, Chinese chocolate , Chinese liquorice , turmeric and standard mixtures of shiao-hu-tang (pinyin xiao-cha-hu-tang ) and shi-kuan-ta- buang -quan-da-bu-tang ) ( Lam2016hec ). Fulvotomenthosides from honeysuckle Lonicera fulvotomentosa , oleanolic acid (for the first time described from the olive tree ), leafy lawn and jelly jelly ( Liu1994ech ) are also considered to be effective .
Hepatoprotective herbs of European tradition
Before the mass arrival of Paracelsus drugs, we treated hepatic herpes in Europe as well, but we have forgotten more than others. And maybe we've never been as good as TCM doctors. Anyway, in the European herb tradition, we have dubious categories of cholagogs and so-called stomachi (stomach plants), and there is a striking tendency to consider any bitter plants (amara - chicory, chicory, ground, dandelion, vagina .. .) Good for the liver.
So besides familiar and widely recommended (Birch , bay, teaspoon, chicory, black bitch, black currant (fetus and root)), garlic , Jungle, juniper, jellyfish, kneecap, creeping beetle, yarrow, rape, broke, schisandra, mistletoe, sandal, sandalwood, sage, peasant and list goes to species where it is unclear to what extent their recommendation reaches To the times of dubious doctrine of signatures, such as the livers of the creeper and the villas of the three lobes, which may be cured because their leaves resemble their shape of the liver. I do not want to detract from the European herbal tradition. I'm just saying that, unlike TČM, we would have to carry out much more scientific work than we would get those with the greatest hepatoprotective effects. Our herbalists sometimes summarize this by saying, "Eat a thistle and a hill of vegetables." Of the thistle kingdom, artichokes and a no-bodied puppy from which the root is used are recommended, but whose young cattle can be consumed just like artichokes. Even the medical benedict is a thistle, and in the above list I would (along with the beast and the smile) rank it among the more effective ones. Some herbivores additionally add a puškvorec and some deaf-eaten - anemone, deer, mint, mead and the aforementioned sage. Stanislava Sehnálek (http://www.penicka.cz/) also mentions the Indian plant Picrorhiza kurroa, which is not available in our country.
It is strange that the plant kingdom in which we have so many "liver" plants would not have the same great kingdom of mushrooms as containing important hepatoprotective adaptogens. However, the fungus empire is less explored because mushrooms are getting worse, can not be easily grown and planted, so their traditional knowledge is particularly inadequate in Europe. Let us say at least the model glossy gloss gloss adaptogener, which has hepatoprotective effects.
The effect against hepatic impairment in gloss gloss has been quantified in a murine model of liver damage by cadmium. G. lucidum has increased 8-fold the production of metallothionein mRNA ( Jin2013peg ), a protein whose task in the liver is to accumulate and detoxify heavy metals. The effect of glossary cirrhosis against cirrhosis was experimentally demonstrated in rats after damage to carbon dioxide ( Kwon2011aaf , Sudheesh2012glp ).