Oxidative damage is one of the main mechanisms of aging. Oxidation and even spontaneous decay of chemical bonds all living organisms must constantly defend. This is done, first, the replacement or repair of damaged molecules, as well as prevention by specific substances with the ability to slow the oxidation and disintegration sponánní chemical bonds. These often work by neutralizing the free oxygen radicals and other reactive oxidizing the resulting scopine ( Fang2002fra ). Antioxidants are very abundant in nature - nacházají in the body of plants and animals, including humans.
Fashion eating antioxidants retreats
The reader of various articles on healthy crops could easily get the impression that on the podium of the world's largest antioxidant is those plants (and fungi) somehow too. Over the last few months I've seen this way extolling goji ( "Lycium Plus is the most powerful antioxidant that is currently found on the market." Source ) Inonotus obliquus ( "CagA has the highest ORAC index ever recorded in natural food" source ), tea (polyphenols), pomegranate fruit ( "pomegranate is the most powerful antioxidant of all fruits." source ), resveratrol from red wine ( "the latest research is just Activin the strongest antioxidant." source ), what one wants. As I myself read some table indexes forces antioxidant effect, I was surprised that at that particular table was in the first place "spice" - turmeric, as the comparable about 5 other spices somewhere from the area around the Majorana (just did not remember black pepper was not).
However, as noted Davidovová ( davydov2000es , p. 378), "The Future of antioxidants currently does not look too rosy." It turned out that overeating antioxidant vitamins and beta-carotene does not provide any benefit (such Rautalahti1997bdn , Teixeira2009adn ), perhaps with the exception of Vitamin C. Long known that the antioxidant vitamin A is toxic in overdose, and later found to be carcinogenic. Now it's even suspected beta-carotene ( Rautalahti1997bdn ), while the likes of lycopene and lutein still pays to be beneficial. The fact that a substance is an antioxidant, it might not automatically mean that it is helpful to us. And since this article is biased article, I would have said that in spite of the above, I have myself a good subjective experience with high doses of vitamins C and E.
Adaptogens are not mere antioxidants
I believe that relatively much attention to the antioxidant effect of adaptogens donated was given both fashionable wave of antioxidants and also the ease with which the laboratory experiments carried out with antioxidants. Adaptogens but mostly protects cells other than simply trapping pollutants. For example, it has recently elucidated depressant effect of ginseng on the activation of microglia which contribute to its neuroprotective action . Ginseng here does not remove harmful substances (e.g. ethanol) from the brain, but restricts consequential damage and death of neurons due to inflammatory reaction microglia. Although adaptogens often exhibit antioxidant effect can not adaptogens between antioxidants and equated. For the example of the model adaptogen ginseng and antioxidants typically adaptogen wolfberry.
Cytoprotective and antioxidant effects of ginseng
Protective effects model adaptogen ginseng on mammalian cells are generally known. In an attempt to explain the adaptogenic effect of ginseng was in its time paid great attention to its potential antioxidant effect. Ginseng has been described as the total antioxidant and cytoprotective effect ( Huong1998vaa ) and antioxidant effects of its individual components, such panaxosidů Re , Rg 1 and Rb 1 ( Xie2006aeg , Xiang2008cau , Liao2002neg ). Of note is the effect of ginseng against oxidative damage vascular endothelium ( Kwok2010gpp ), which is probably one of the mechanisms of action of ginseng against atherosclerosis .
Antioxidant effects of ginseng refers only to Medline over 300 publications. One example - Ramesh2012pgr on the model of natural aging rats found that the aqueous extract of red ginseng reduces lipid oxidation and increases the activity of antioxidant systems (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, and low molecular weight antioxidants such as glutathione, vitamin C and vitamin E.
A closer study of mechanisms of action content substances of ginseng it is shown that ginseng antioxidant is not in the true sense of the word: It is not that the recaptured oxygen and radicals, but by improving the tissue reaction to injury, whether it be of oxygen radicals, or ionizing radiation. By saying that the components of ginseng have no antioxidant effects - such as ginsenoside Rb 1 directly scavenges hydroxyl radicals ( Lu2012grd ). Direct antioxidant effect, but not what ginseng stands out.
Cytoprotective effect is related to the effect of ginseng anti-aging and anti-radiation. Ginseng is considered the most effective means against radiation, which has a medicine , which is already at the beginning of the 80s of last century pointed Japanese radiologist Morio Yonezawa ( Yonezawa1976rri , Yonezawa1981rri , Yonezawa1985rri ).
Antioxidant effects of LBP (Lycium barbarum polysaccharides) ( Li2007elb ) and flavonoids ( Le2007iqa ) extracted from the fruit of wolfberry (Goji) have been demonstrated in vitro and in model organisms. The mechanism of action is similar for both groups - reduction function, chelation of metal ions and disposal of free radicals. The total antioxidant effect could also contribute betaine. ( Ren1995pal ) Greater attention is not paid to LBP. It turned out that LBP extract has protective effects on heat damaged rat testes in vivo and to cells in vitro mouse testis damaged H 2 O second ( Luo2006lbp ) rabbits fed on a high cholesterol after administration of LBP decreased triglyceride content in blood, improve the ratio of HDL cholesterol to total cholesterol and oxidative stress indicators ( Ma2005elb ). Studies with similar results was also performed on mice fed a high fat diet ( Ming2009elb ). Diabetic mice after administration of LBP significantly reduced cholesterol in plasma glucose and insulin after a meal, while oxidative damage and DNA change induced by streptozotocin were smaller than when mice were administered LBP ( Wu2006elb ) ( Li2007pel ) ( Zhao2005elb ).
Antioxidant effects are common among adaptogens
Compile a complete list of adaptogens with antioxidant effects would not be easy nor desirable as these they are common in the plant kingdom. Other examples mention yet highly effective polyphenolic antioxidant curcumin ( Ak2008ars ) of kurkumovníku long , salidrosid of Rhodiola rosea ( Yang2016sao ) and antioxidant polyphenols Šišák Baikal ( Shang2010gse , Waisundara2008sbe ), not to mention the tea. Strong antioxidant effects are not characterized by a miraculous nightshade family (Solanaceae) with goji, hailing, gooseberry, capsicum, tomatoes and mint (Lamiaceae) is Sisak, oregano, sage and other genera, as well as innumerable other miraculous taxa of plants and fungi.