Dopaminergic neurons in the brain resides in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), the substantia nigra and in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. From the substantia nigra is based nigrostriatal pathway, the existence of which most people learns related to Parkinson's disease . From the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus nucleus into our third eye, pineal gland (pineal corpus) A pair of dopaminergic fibers tuberoinfundibular runway whose function escapes me because biorhythm is another way leads to the pineal gland and literature with me because of those few axons wants to read. Lanes that made dopamine really famous are those arising from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) mesocortical and mesolimbic pathway.
The chart tracks the popularity of brain mesolimbic track always puts on popředním place because it is considered to be related to the motivation of human behavior. It seems that she determines what we will have fun and you get bored. Mesocortical track ends in the cortex of the frontal lobe, where, in my fantasies could be housed our ego and who has, and superego. Mesolimbic pathway leading into the structures of the limbic system, which according to my naive childish housed our boss, whom cocaine addict Sigmund Freud christened named id. Certainly it is much more difficult to say but computer from a fairy tale Stanislava Lema, people must represent something. Descartes his time asserted that the soul is the seat of the pineal gland. By posmělen I would today the seat of the soul said message loop that runs from the center of the memory hippocampal GABAergic center stage VTA, dopaminergic from there to the frontal lobe cortex and then back into the hippocampus.
Inactivation of dopamine pathways through dopamine antagonists in medical practice has been using the "successful" treatment of the group of diseases called schizophrenia .
Adaptogens with effect on dopamine and dopaminergic neurons
As well as memory and memory corruption are often simply explain discrepancies cholinergic system , schizophrenia are often associated with the dopamine system. He is related to motivation, it affects the frontal lobe of the brain and limbic system. Dopamine receptors associated with drug addictions. Cocaine and methamphetamine act directly on the dopamine system: Boosts dopamine signaling in the brain center of drug addiction - the nucleus accumbens. Other addictive substances act on dopamine indirectly. For example, nicotine action of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors eventually increase in striatal dopamine (older smokers cease to shaking hands) and nucleus accumbens (there may be habit). Alcoholism (GABA receptors) morphinism (opioid receptors) and other addictions, ultimately, lead to an outpouring of dopamine into the nucleus accumbens.
Treatment of drug addiction is a traditional indication ginseng . This indication has been empirically discovered in TCM and invariably passed on from generation to generation. Only then came biology with dozens of experiments, focusing on the dopamine system. Because drug addiction harm the brain, was also interested in the protective effects of substances contained ginseng on neurons of drug addicts. Another area of interest is Parkinson's disease in which dopaminergic neurons die now and it would be advisable to find a way to protect them.
- Kim1995bbg , Tokuyama1996ege , Lee2008ieg - total extract of ginseng saponins block the outpouring of dopamine into the nucleus accumbens, counteracts dopamine sensitization and normalize hyperactive behavior dependent rats after administration of cocaine.
- Kim1999ibg - ginsenoside Rb 1 and ginsenoside Rg 1 in mice treated with anti-dopaminergic effect against cocaine sensitization and dopamine signaling.
- Halladay1999ace describes the interaction between the total extract of ginseng saponins and amphetamine, concluding that ginseng saponins apparently act on the dopamine system.
- Kim1995ibg - crude ginseng extract and fractions panaxosidová suppress dopaminergic sensitivity morfinismu.
- Shim2000meg , Kim2006egs - effect of ginseng saponins against dopamine outpouring n. Accumbens, and to changes in gene expression of dopaminergic neurons upon administration of nicotine.
- In experimental models of Parkinson's disease ginsenoside Rg 1 protect nerve cells (PC12) from apoptosis due to stimulation by dopamine. ( Chen2003gra )
- Ginsenoside Rd protects dopaminergic cells in experimental in vitro activation of microglia. ( Lin2007gra )
- It seems that Cordyceps (Cordyceps sinensis) has antidepressant over the dopamine system. ( Nishizawa2007aec )
- Chen2007chh summarizes herbs against Parkinsonism, a disease eminently dopaminergic. As a potentially effective states tea polyphenols / catechins, ginseng , ginkgo , knotweed (Polygonum) and others.
- Rhodiola rosea has dopaminergic activity with potential in the treatment of alcoholism and other drug dependencies. ( Blum2007mcc )
- Ayurvedic plants Asiatic pennywort (Centella asiatica) and BAKOP drobnolistá (Bacopa monnieri) called brahmní also act on the dopamine system.
I realize that the above list of herbs with the effect on the dopamine system is grossly incomplete. And because this site I write alone, and never will be complete. I want him to express that many completely harmless adaptogens was mechanistically proven effect on the monoaminergic system (including the dopamine system) and other receptor systems of the brain, so you can not say that these plants are fundamentally ineffective "panaceas". Further reading an article about the offer adaptogens acting against depression .