Mental performance in some occupations and its critical need to maximize all who exercise this profession. The mental stress and the effect of adaptogens him I wrote in another article . Here I am devoted to the methods by which healthy people can improve mental performance. Sometimes it is sufficient just relaxing exercises that are trying to relax and concentrate better on mental activity we do.
Nootropics - agents for improving mental performance
Nootropic agents are defined as substances which increase intelligence or other means (e.g. calming) improving thinking. Of course, it is rather with a desire than reality, intelligence is too complex than it was possible for people across the board to increase the consumption of a particular substance. Nootropics are in practice most agents for improving cerebral physiology of a parameter, such as cerebral blood flow or availability of neurotransmitters. They do not work for all people, but only those who are with the physiological parameter of the problem - because the brain is completely healthy seamlessly to ensure adequate blood supply and availability of carriers. Other nootropics are derived from psychiatric drugs within expectation that what helps a weakened individuals can enhance the normal brain to higher performance. (Well known piracetam is something between these two categories.) Other substances in turn act as nootropics only its calming effect - perhaps you did not know that ethanol is common because of the calming effect of doping as a prohibited by competition shooters. And finally, I would like to mention here the category of depressants that are in my view the most important biologist, and nootropics are among the natural adaptogens.
Improving the average mental performance (nootropic effect) was at the ginseng of great interest and documented by many publications. Scientific research on its effectiveness is important, because subjectively perceived effect of ginseng to improve thinking and concentration are working hard to differentiate from placebo effect. The ginseng as depressants can we build a belief or disbelief, but the fact that the nootropic effect, there are numerous studies which can hardly compete with other herbs. Nootropic effect of ginseng is explained by three main mechanisms:
- Soothing (anxiolytic) action through the GABAergic system .
- The positive effects on memory via the central system acetylcholine .
- Other neurosteroidními effects panaxosidů system serotonin and dopamine .
Soothing effect through GABAergic system
Ginsenosides Rb 1 , Rb 2 , Rc , Re , Rf and Rg 1 is reversibly bind to GABA receptors ( Kimura1994igw ). Like piracetam, ginseng and stabilizes the activity of GABA neurons . This helps with negatively motivated tasks, as confirmed by animal studies ( Churchill2002npg ). Ginseng, although not euphoric, helps in depression . and eliminates insomnia .
Memory improvement system due to acetylcholine
Gssd. Rb 1 ( benishin1991egr ) and Rg 1 ( Yamaguchi1995egi ) together with gssd. Re ( Yamaguchi1996egi ) block experimental damage learning alkaloid scopolamine. Ginsenosides Rb 1 and Rg 1 enhance the metabolism of acetylcholine in the hippocampus ( Benishin1992agr , Salim1997grr ). Gssd. Rg 2 , compound K and protopanaxatriol inhibit specific types of nicotinic cholinergic receptors ( Lee2003deb , Lee2009rlr ).
Other psychological effects of ginseng
Ginseng regulates stress activates the mind and removes mental fatigue sensation ( Kim2003iii , yoshimura1988ace , Kim2003egs ). Gssd. 20 (S) 2 Rg improved learning and memory in rats, and limiting disruptions experimental psychology ( Ma1993e2c ). Use of ginseng in the context of psychiatric treatment analyzes Wilkie1994grj . Much has also examined the use of ginseng with Alzheimer's disease , which grossly distorts thinking. I wore during prolonged use of very high doses of ginseng (up to 30 grams a day for 2 weeks) observed symptoms as hyperactivity and irritability. Mouse studies yoshimura1988ace however observed after the administration of ginseng extract reduce aggression which ascribed Panaxosidy Rb 1 , wherein panaxosid Rg 1 aggressiveness conversely increased. ( Opposing effects of ingredients of ginseng are typical.)
Clinical studies confirm nootropic effects of ginseng
- Standardized ginseng extract G115 improved working memory and subjective mental peace healthy young subjects (30 volunteers, eight days after the 200 and 400 mg of extract, publications Reay2010pgg tests in this and several other publications mentioned herein conducted G115 manufacturer, Boehringer Ingelheim).
- Korea Insam ginseng extract G115 and improve attention, intelligence (mathematical exercises, logic) and reaction time (16 probands publications Angelo1986dpc ).
- In young subjects ginseng improved performance in ten-minute psychological stress ( Reay2006epg )
- Combination of ginseng and ginkgo biloba to improve in the detailed psychological mental performance ( Kennedy2002mcm ).
- Kallus2005apf is a scientific overview of the aging of cognitive functions, finds a positive effect on caffeine and ginseng extract G115. (As kofeinista with caffeine to drop by more carefully.)
- Coleman2003epg is an overview of the positive effects of P. ginseng on quality of life, focusing on products Pharmaton, Ginsana and under.
- Nootropic effects of the herbal combination of ginseng and Schizandra study examined Nishiyama1995bes and Nishiyama1996hps that showed improvement in learning and memory.
- Standard TCM combination ginseng Yuen Kan Ginseng and narrow-leaved milkwort (Polygala tenuifolia) had an animal model antidepressive and nootropic effect. ( Sun2013aem )
Another plant nootropics
Besides ginseng nootropic effect often attributed to gingko dvoulaločnému , Rhodiola rosea , Schisandra and in varying degrees and other adaptogenům. Scutellaria baicalensis is mildly sedative and has protective effects on hippocampal neurons ( Lim2016asb ). It deserves attention and sage and other mint family, for example. Oregano. Traditional Indian (ayurvedic) is a nootropic BAKOP drobnolistá called Brahmi ( Calabrese2008esb ).
As the bead I said that probably the most used nicotine depressants, whose nootropic effects like pointing my former chief, neurobiologist and a big smoker himself. Nicotine acts on the central nicotinic acetylcholine receptors type. Although nicotine is not an adaptogen (therapeutic index is too low), in small doses improves concentration and elderly people temporarily suppress the symptoms of Parkinson's disease .