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Radiation dose

Radiation

Radioactivity is a phenomenon in which atomic nuclei at cleavage or other nuclear reactions emit radiation. Isotopes prone to radioactive decay are called radionuclides. Radioactive radiation can in practice be divided into electromagnetic (X-ray, gamma) and particle (alpha, beta, neutrons).

Nepronikavá radiation

  • Radiation α - actually a helium nucleus (two protons and neutrons), electron without packaging. Captures is already thin films and in the body and stratum corneum of the skin. Very dangerous, however, α-radiation happens when absorbed if during radiation contamination α radioactive isotope in the body and then irradiated cells up close.
  • Β radiation - rapidly moving electrons. It's a bit more penetrating than α radiation, but especially dangerous to time, if it comes β-radioactive nuclide from exposure inside the body.

penetrating radiation

  • Γ radiation - often (but not always) accompanied by nuclear reactions α and β radiation. There are also pure γ-emitter. Discernment γ-rays is given to their great energy, otherwise it's just photons.
  • Neutron radiation - neutron flux from a radioactive source. The neutrons pass through matter almost without obstacles and stop it, popularly speaking, only a frontal crash into the atomic nucleus. Even though we may seem solid matter dense enough, on a microscopic scale, it is the finest quantum foam composed mostly empty. Atomic nuclei are incredibly small. Neutron collision with the core of an atom when passing material (such as a block of iron) is even less likely than air crash caused by air collision of two aircraft. Neutrons in the mass flies many meters before finally fixing it somewhere. Neutron radiation is special in that when the crash finally occurs to the core, the neutron can get stuck in it and change it to a radioactive isotope. That is why it is so dangerous radiation neutron - irradiated object itself becomes radioactive. If the neutron irradiated human organism under the influence of radionuclides captured neutrons arise in the body, which are much more dangerous than in the external environment (because they apply their α and β radiation).

From the properties of penetrating radiation and shows the way of protection:

  1. Square of the distance. The most effective protection against penetrating radiation is not to be at the source. The intensity of radiation decreases with the square of the distance - when you increase your distance from the source tenfold, we get 100 times smaller doses of radiation.
  2. Heavy shielding. Used materials from heavy elements, but with the proper thickness (many meters) are effective and common materials (clay, concrete, stone, water). Usually lead, but the depleted uranium, though he weakly radioactive, it is more than twice as better shielding material than lead.

radioactive contamination

Protection against penetrating radiation is important for nuclear weapons. For civilian radiation disaster rather we meet only the insidious radioactive contamination when radionuclides get into the environment, soil, water and food chain, often at great distance. We can say that the type of Chernobyl radioactive contamination (which evaporate into the atmosphere about 100 tons of enriched uranium), or type of Fallujah, is in some sense worse than Hiroshima atomic explosion type. Radioactive nuclei that get into our bodies, and irradiate the cells close nepronikavé alpha and beta radiation is then just as harmful as penetrating radiation. That is why we advise during radiation accidents do not open the windows and to avoid consuming food derived from infected areas. If radionuclides get into the body, there is no way to shield or to neutralize them. It is possible to try to get the radioactive isotopes from the body (e.g. chelates) and then can only rely on the self-healing ability of living tissue.

The biological effect of radiation

Appropriately energy radioactive radiation is called ionizing - ionization is what most harmful rays. Our biomolecule in fact (except for rare cases transmutation of elements) care about the isotopic changes in atomic nuclei, but it bothers them when α, β and γ radiation excites electrons and thereby break the covalent bonds, or create a free radical. A free radical is excited state with unpaired electron, which has a relatively long lifetime (tens of minutes, though usually has nowhere spin state), but eventually causes the same thing - mixed up covalent bonds. Most sensitive to inappropriate interventions is unsurprisingly DNA in which a small change (mutation) may have a lethal effect (e.g. to cause tumor). With a certain amount of damaged ties with the enzymes repairing DNA settle, but if it is too much, there is a cell to conclude that its survival would be due to the possibility of cancerous degeneration of unwanted and undergo controlled disassembly - apoptosis . That is the cause of death in acute radiation sickness: Patients with a few days of doing seemingly well (ie. The walking dead), but then quickly failing them for massive apoptosis, especially the mucous membranes of the digestive tract (bloody diarrhea, dehydration), but also the skin (peeling) do not ever lose your hair. When they survive long enough to make them look hair, have a chance of recovery, with permanent effects partial or complete sexual sterilization. For the rest of his life have an increased risk of cancer: surviving cells with damaged DNA are more likely to develop the cancer.

Another interesting effect of radiation is harmful genetic damage in germ line - ie in the offspring. Mutations in fact occur in sex cells and thus increases the likelihood of congenital deviations. This can be both negative and positive, but given that our genetic evolutionary parameters found in a local minimum, it is virtually always negative (except Simpsons). But the situation is not so terrible. Genetic defects in germ line is a natural corrective mechanisms largely eliminated, so the medical costs, which the children and grandchildren pay for ancestors irradiation is generally very low (with the exception of Fallujah, which is worse in this respect than Hiroshima ).

Radiation is not a ghost

Information about the radiation is good to have but do not need to worry about it too much. It should be appreciated that radiation damage to cells is qualitatively no worse than ultraviolet radiation on the beach. UV kills bacteria because it is ionizing. If we were as transparent as Branchiostoma lanceolatum, stay on the beach would be equivalent to less pursued nuclear explosion from a distance of 10 km. Radiation α, β and γ is in principle no worse than the UV, just afterglow deeper into the body. Neutrons are slightly stronger, but ultimately causes the release of ionizing radiation, so that the qualitative effect is the same. If the internal body contamination with radioactive isotopes, so our cells are still in the sun that does not go off. Even after we used but, not so much from the natural background radiation (which is very low), but rather of various radical toxins that we still get into the body. Radicals in fact act almost exactly the same way as radiation. The worst of these poisons is normally oxygen - a poison that we have learned to tolerate, because they feed on. But otherwise our cells are full of enzymes and hacks that the damage after oxygen still clear. Another important source of radicals and then our own immune cells that use peroxide, superoxide and other exotic molecules as a normal part of their equipment and weapons.

In sum, if we keep an adequate diet, so the normal or slightly elevated levels of radiation do not have any fear.

Note

This text I wrote from memory. It is not canonical, but perhaps illuminate some facts that you find in Wikipedia neurotic, even převzorcovaných textbooks biophysics. The topic of radiation are not exhaustive - you could write about the deadly and harmful doses of radiation measurements, about Sievert, corporate orders, remech, becquerels, Gray, Curie, up to the head rotates about radon emanation of polonium 210, which decay of radon arises and Litvinenko that it was poisoned, on the disaster in Chernobyl, Fukushima and other nuclear power plants, of depleted uranium in "conventional" munitions, what Einstein stated after the war, about how the radioactive environment degrades electronic and operate only brains, hydraulic, pneumatic and human on iodine pills and their compensation in the form of seaweed on radiation in the fly ash thermal power plants, a radioactive construction materials that it produced about cosmic rays and radiation when flying an aircraft for X-rays and radiotherapy, check welds on candling radiation, radiation sterilization of food on breberce Deinococcus radiodurans, which radiation-sterilized foods survives on microwaves, mobile phones and radio transmitters ... But it would not fit here. If you're on one of these topics page novel, write, zlinkuji.

Protection against radiation load

This page is about the radiation and what some doctors do not know - that the most effective means of protection against radiation are natural adaptogens. Otherwise, radiation is not water sprite, which we had to irrational fear. The first step rational approach to radiation danger is to see if we belong to a risk group.

Who is at risk of radiation

Radiation hazards are mainly exposed to pilots and flight attendants, and even more employees than nuclear power plants and similar facilities, with the exception of emergency situations. And this is one of the reasons why these jobs are going to retire earlier and the active period, so they need a higher salary. Additionally, radiologists and their assistants, scientists working with radionuclides, and people from around uranium mines and areas radon emanation. A slightly increased risk of radiation are also exposed to smokers and people in areas polluted by power plant fly ash - because smoke contains considerable quantities of radionuclides.

Passive protection and radioprotective adaptogens

The first step in passive protection is to measure, or at least consider how much radiation we are exposed to stress. The second step is the danger as possible to avoid: Do not stay in a hazardous area, to protect themselves against external and internal contamination, etc. Only if this is not possible (eg. For pilots and cabin crew of aircraft), or when there is an exposure has occurred, they come into play adaptogens. In the field of protection against radiation adaptogens forehead ginseng surpass any other medicines. Ginseng should be a standard component of medication during oncological radiotherapy.

Radioprotective effect of ginseng

Probably the first one scientifically described the radioprotective properties of ginseng was Israel itself Brechman, author of the definition of adaptogen ( brekhman1960ecp ). The Soviet research established Japanese ( Yonezawa1976rri , Takeda1981rri , Yonezawa1981rri , Takeda1982rri , Yonezawa1985rri ). These experiments demonstrated that ginseng promotes the regeneration of the immune system and has the ability under severe exposure to reduce the likelihood of death or irreversible damage. Radiologist Morio Jonezava, who led the aforementioned five experimental work has been cited as the author of the statement that "ginseng appears to be the most effective means available to protect against radiation damage" ( "Ginseng Appears To Be The Most Useful agent available for protection against radiation damage. "Paul Bergner, The Healing Power of Ginseng Tonic Herbs & the). Jonezava the same time not specialize in medicinal plants. It is well-known radiologist at Osaka University, for example, is named after him Jonezavův effect - radioprotective effect of low doses of X-rays ( Yonezawa2006irb , Wang2013rrd ).

Lists of ginseng as a radioprotectant ( Lee2005rpg , Jia2009cem , chen2008cpe , christensen2009gcb etc.) documents a large number of experiments with P. ginseng in different organisms, tissues and types of radiation (X-rays, γ-rays, UV radiation). These publications mostly clear clearly recommend ginseng as an adjuvant to radiation therapy and cancer chemotherapy. Of specific experimental studies are for instance:

  • Kumar2003rep - radioprotective effect of ginseng (mouse).
  • Verma2011arh - improved blood counts after irradiation extract of P. ginseng (mouse).
  • Kim1998pgp - P. ginseng effective against against hair loss from radiation (mouse).
  • Ginseng extract protects against the mutagenic and carcinogenic effect of radiation in vitro ( Rhee1991imt ) and in vivo ( Kim1993vra ) and also from damage of the nervous system, damage to the gastrointestinal epithelium and cell apoptosis ( Kim2001mrr ). In all three studies, the positive control diethyldithiocarbamate.
  • Zhang1987mrr - ginseng best protected as phytocomplex, total extract is said to be more effective than either faction.
  • Lee2006ivr - the three parameters of radiation protection (regeneration of leukocytes, epithelial protection and inhibition of apoptosis) dominates the ranking of the effectiveness of five ginsenosides: Rg 1 , Re , Rc , Rb 2 and Rd .
  • Song2003reg - ginseng polysaccharide ginsan protected mice from the lethal effects of ionizing radiation. Additionally ginsan after irradiation specifically improved immune response type 1 ( Han2005git ) had anti-mutagenic effect ( Ivanova2006aep ) and supported the repair of natural antioxidant systems after irradiation ( Han2005mrd ), all mouse.
  • Kim2007rea - ginseng acidic polysaccharide (APG) to protect bone marrow from radiation (mouse).
  • Kim2008erg , Kim2009sed - skin protection against ultraviolet radiation (mouse).
  • Lee2009per , Kim2009egs - protection against accelerated skin aging due to UV radiation (mouse).
  • Chang2013pek - red ginseng (ginseng radix rubra) to protect human keratinocytes from apoptosis of radiation.
  • Lee2004grm - reparation of lymphocytes.
  • Han2005git - reparation of T cells.
  • Lee2008ena - the same methodology, a similar result for American ginseng (P. quinquefolius).
  • Tamura2008grp - Ginsenoside Rd protects against intestinal death in acute radiation sickness.
  • Park2011app - similar effect with polysaccharide ginsanu.
  • Kostyleva2009gpb - increasing age at death in a mouse model of accelerated aging radiation.
  • Kang2009erg - red ginseng (giseng radix rubra), effective anti-aging skin exposed to UVB radiation (mouse).
  • Kostyleva2010rab - Red Ginseng is effective against the development of skin neoplasms in radiation accelerated aging (mouse).
  • Chae2009ecm - a strange message about the selective effect of compound K , intestinal metabolite protopanaxadiolových panaxosidů against γ irradiated cancer cells . The mechanism of such selectivity would make me very interested.
  • Lee2009agm , Lee2010rea - Ginseng American (Panax quinquefolius) protects the white blood cells to model the radiation poisoning of 137 Cs (human peripheral blood lymphocytes).

Another radioprotective plants

Like while scientists investigating effects on model rostinách such as ginseng, practical TCM fundamentally uses a combination of a plurality of plants. For example, according Kim2002reb is an effective combination of herbs against radiation ginseng (Panax ginseng), děhel (radix angelicae) cohosh root (rhizoma cimicifugae) and prorostlíku root (radix bupleuri). Děhel China alone is effective against radiation ( Zhao2012scr ), and Taiwan is the most commonly prescribed TCM Roslin patients with cancer of the mammary gland ( Lai2012ppc ). In terms of content substances are děheli Chinese resemble other types děhele, including our medical děhele (Angelica archangelica).

In scientific ponímání radioprotective herbs are more or less coincide with the category of adaptogens. Since the Brechmanových times in parallel with ginseng to pay attention to the use of Siberian ginseng ostnitého against radiation damage ( Benhur1981epg , Miyanomae1988rhc ). The Indian study Jagetia2007rpp found more or less radioprotective potential for ginkgo biloba , umbilical cord Asian (Centella asiatica), sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides), basil sacred , ginseng , noholistu Himalayan (Podophyllum hexandrum), amaranth latnatého (Amaranthus paniculatus) embliky Medical ( Emblica officinalis), sadly bitter (Phyllanthus amarus), kava long (Piper longum) chebula heart-shaped (Tinospora cordifolia), peppermint Field (Mentha arvensis), peppermint (Mentha piperita), clove šabrejového (Syzygium cumini), ginger medical , nestařce hnidákovitého (Ageratum conizoides) oslizáku the sweet (Aegle Marmelos) and afanamixisu mnohoklasého (Aphanamixis polystachya).

This list of plants with potential radioprotectant no means exhausts. The effect of low dose radiation identical to oxidative damage, so that the radioprotective properties of natural medicines are to a certain extent overlap with antioxidant . In other words, some protection against radiation to provide sources of antioxidants (blackberries, blueberries , black currants, goji , pomegranate, blue grapes, beetroot ...) Small note: The word antioxidant today is magical - benefits of fruits, vegetables and juices made from germinated seeds ( tip!) has a broader explanation and can not be reduced to the antioxidant score measured in a test tube.

| 21.10.2010