Mycelium and primordium of medicinal mushrooms - growing
Each picker has certainly seen spawn - when collecting mushrooms in the forest is seen as a bunch of white threads, called hyphae from which the fruiting body grows. Not everyone knows that the mycelium grows forest soil (or, for wood-destroying fungus infected wood) over distances of many meters and its total weight is usually many times greater than the total weight of mushrooms. When biomass growing medicinal mushrooms in vitro (ie artificially) is used that the mycelium grows much faster than the fruiting bodies. During the inoculation the culture container (e.g. a Petri dish) mycelium quickly proroste culture medium (agar), and after about 7 days to form the surface bumps, which are called primordium - embryonic material.
Primordium is germ-fungal compound in the form of bumps on the surface of the culture medium (agar). From that over time would theoretically have grown fruiting bodies. Practically fungal biomass immediately processed to extract and packaged in a capsule or tablet. The only reason why the word used primordium, is to emphasize the similarity grown fungal biomass and traditional mushrooms.
Growing mycelium on agar in Petri dishes is easier than it seems. The laboratory equipment needs Petri dish (autoclave sterilization is an advantage but not a necessity). Microbiological laboratory experience is an advantage but not a must - experience with bottling fruit will suffice.
How to grow mycelia at home
When growing mycelia, as well as for preserving fruit, we must pay attention to cleanliness and sterilization - otherwise we place mushrooms grow on agar microbial colonies. The growth of mushrooms you first have to prepare the agar broth. Agar lzezakoupit as kuchuňskou ingredient. Because the fungus itself agar diet does not have to enrich the nutrient agar component, such as barley malt and yeast extract, which you can add soy protein. These ingredients that are readily available, together with agar dissolved in hot water on agar broth. Petri dishes and sterilized by boiling at 100 ° C, are filled agar broth (also heated to 100 ° C), cover with a lid, and leave it in the refrigerator to solidify. Mushrooms are not demanding, many species grow on completely inferior substrates, so their diet do not have too much to worry about.
That's what we need to worry, as bacteria and fungi. Sterile Petri dish after filling and sealing lid not already open (it is the same as for preserving bottles). We open only for a short time when vaccination fungal spores or mycelium those produced already. Spores obtained from fresh or dry sponge material. The inoculation proceed to complete solidification of agar (20 hours in the fridge) and it can be done, for example stainless steel rod, which first flame sterilize:
When inoculation of petri dish we lift the lid slowly and only for the shortest appropriate period of time. The lid still held over the agar to let sawdust bacteria. Cultivate at room temperature. If all goes well, a few days we would have to grow up in a bowl of white mycelium of the fungus. On the mycelium will soon create a primordium ("young fruiting bodies"). Bacterial colonies which are certainly encounter generally appear transparent, white or colored bumps on the surface of the agar. Mold initially produce similar fungal mycelium on it but soon begin to form green or black fungal spores. Fungi have the ability of some species of bacteria agar "vykonkurovat" but if the bacteria causing us big problems, we can add to broth antibiotics (grown mycelium and primordium of agar, of course, will not eat).
|mycelium (Ganoderma gloss)||Two different types of mycelium on contaminated Petri dish|
|primordium - pink oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus djamor)||primordium - penízovka sametonohá (Flammulina velutipes)|
Cloning fungi on agar
In the manner described above can be prepared agar plates fungi and cloned. We need a clean piece of fresh, vibrant fruit bodies, which simply put on the agar surface.
|boltcovitka wood ears (Auricularia auricula-Judah)|
Mushroom fibers from which fruiting bodies comprising, sequentially sprout and re-creates the mycelium, which grows on the surface of the agar. If the mycelium used to inoculate another substrate obtained fungi which are used by clone piece fruiting.
The advantage of growing mycelium on agar is that we can visually make sure that there really growing fungus given and not the bacteria or fungi. Mycelium grown on agar is therefore used to inoculate logs (or other substrates) in plantations of medicinal mushrooms.
In industrial cultivation of fungal mycelia biomass in the form of a priomordia a step increase fruiting bodies on the natural substrate (which may in medicinal mushrooms last for many months) completely omits a fungal preparations are produced from fungal biomass. Mycelium on agar growing rapidly (several days), but the nutrients in the agar will soon run out. Growth is then stopped and the resulting fungal biomass is processed. Production of fungal biomass to be much concentrate as their main part is drained agar. While the mushrooms concentrates of concentration is optional, reviewing a process , the products of fungal biomass is a necessity.
If we wanted to imitate the industrial process, we would streaky mycelium agar petri dishes of our select, insert into the cooking glass and boil to dissolve. We acquired secondary broth, which contained a broth from the mycelium and primordia and depleted dissolved agar. Evaporation and filtration to obtain a liquid concentrate, freeze concentrated powder.