Each picker has certainly seen spawn - when collecting Torus in the forest is seen as a bunch of white filaments, called hyphae from which the fruiting body grows. Not everyone knows that the mycelium grows forest soil (or in the case of wood-destroying fungus infected wood) over distances of many meters and its total weight is usually many times greater than the total weight of fruiting bodies. When growing biomass medicinal mushrooms in vitro (i.e. artificially) it is used that the mycelium grows much faster than the fruiting bodies. When the inoculation of the culture container (e.g. a Petri dish) mycelium quickly proroste culture medium (agar), and after about 7 days, formed on the surface of the bumps, which are called primordium - embryonic material.
Primordium is germ-fungal mass in the form of bumps on the surface of a culture medium (agar). From that over time would theoretically have grown fruiting bodies. Practically fungal biomass immediately processed to extract and packaged as capsules or tablets. The only reason why the word used primordium, is to emphasize the similarity grown fungal biomass and traditional fruiting bodies.
Growing mycelium on agar in Petri dishes is easier than it seems. From laboratory equipment we need petri dish (autoclave sterilization is an advantage but not a necessity). Microbiological laboratory experience is an advantage but not a must - Experience with bottling fruit will suffice.
The procedure mycelium growing in home conditions
In the cultivation of the mycelium, as well as for preserving fruit, we must pay attention to cleanliness and sterilization - otherwise we place mushrooms grow on agar microbial colonies. The fungal growth, we must first prepare a broth agar. Agar lzezakoupit as kuchuňskou additive. Because fungi itself agar nutrition does not need to enrich agar nutritive component, such as barley malt and yeast extract, which may be added to the soy protein. These additives, which are commonly available, along with the agar dissolve in hot water on agar broth. Petri dishes and sterilized by boiling at 100 ° C, are filled with the agar broth (also heated to 100 ° C), cover with a lid and leave in the refrigerator to solidify. Mushrooms are not demanding, many species grow on substrates completely inferior, so their nutritional need not worry too much.
That we have nothing to worry about, as bacteria and fungi. Sterile Petri dish after filling and sealing the lid has to be opened (it is the same as for preserving bottles). We open only for a short time when vaccination fungal spores or already-grown mycelia. Spores obtained from fresh or dry sponge material. The inoculation proceed to complete solidification of agar (20 hours in the fridge) and it can be done, for example, stainless steel rod, which first flame sterilized:
When inoculating Petri dishes we lift the lid slowly and only for the shortest appropriate period of time. The lid still held over the agar to let sawdust from bacteria. We are cultivating at room temperature. If all goes well, in a few days it would be built in a bowl of white mycelium of the fungus. On the mycelium will soon also creates a primordium ( "young fruiting bodies"). Bacterial colonies with which will encounter generally appear transparent, white or colored bumps on the surface of the agar. Mould initially produce mycelium fungus-like, on it but soon begin to form a green or black fungal spores. Fungi have the ability to some species of bacteria from agar "vykonkurovat", but if the bacteria cause us big problems, we can add to the broth antibiotics (mycelium grown on agar primordium and of course we will not eat).
Growing mycelium on agar:
Primordium (germs Torus), which are then formed on the agar:
Cloning of fungi on agar
The above described prepared agar plates and the fungus can be cloned. We need a clean piece of fresh, live fruiting bodies, which lay just on the surface of the agar.
Mushroom fibers from which fruiting bodies comprising, sequentially sprout and re-creates the mycelium, which grows on the surface of the agar. If this mycelium used to inoculate another substrate, we get mushrooms, which are used by clone piece fruiting bodies.
Preferably growing mycelium on agar is that we can visually convince that there really growing fungus and not given as bacteria or fungi. Mycelium grown on agar is therefore used to inoculate logs (or other substrates) in plantations of medicinal mushrooms.
For industrial cultivation of fungal biomass in the form of mycelium and priomordia step growth of fruiting bodies on the natural substrate (which may in medicinal mushrooms last for many months) and completely omits fungal preparations are produced directly from the fungal biomass. Mycelium on agar growing rapidly (several days), but the nutrients in the agar will soon be exhausted. Growth is then stopped and the resulting fungal biomass is processed. Production of fungal biomass must concentrate much, because their main part is drained agar. Whereas for concentrates from Torus concentration optional, reviewing a process , the products of fungal biomass is a necessity.
If we wanted to imitate the industrial process, we would have streaky mycelium agar petri dishes from our select, insert into the cooking glass and boil to dissolve. We acquired secondary broth, which contained the broth from the mycelium and primordia and depleted dissolved agar. Evaporation and filtration would obtain a fluid concentrate, freeze concentrate powder.