In areas of their natural habitat was ginseng man used since time immemorial. As a remedy ginseng was first described by r. 200 AD. in Shenzhen Nongově book of herbs (Shen Nong Pen-Cao Jing), and its position in TCM he has maintained to this day.
The history of research adaptogens:
Soviet researchers - a combination of national military research and philanthropic efforts, attempts to use the east location and contact with China
Japanese, Chinese researchers later - after the Soviets have demonstrated that the research methods of herbs of contemporary science is publishable, the specifics of their traditional research began to apply first the Japanese and then Chinese. They were motivated by their own application in science and an original publication that in the current system rewards scientometric
The third phase is commercial, when researchers are motivated by their links to the vendor of herbal preparations.
Modern research ginseng began in the 50s
Our medicine ginseng basically until the 20th century did not pay attention. The pioneers of modern research of ginseng were soviet scientists N. Lazarev and Brekhman. The beginnings of research of ginseng can not be separated from the newly introduced concept adaptogen as a kind of generalization of ginseng, which monument is a persistent tendency of sellers to label all sorts of unrelated adaptogens word "ginseng" . Brechman and his followers first came to research methods dispensatories eastern European science ( brekhman1954egr , brekhman1957pgi , brekhman1965gus , brekhman1966opi , brekhman1969pig , petkov1977aee and many others). Around this time there was also clarify the chemical structure panaxosidů ( shibata1965sss , tanaka1966cso , shibata1966cso , elyakov1968pst etc.).
It is worth noting that although the United States was ginseng American collected and grown in large since the 18th century for export to Asia, the local scientists had largely paid no attention. Ginseng exports to Asia also dealt George Washington himself blessed memory. Little is known that the war for secession from Britain USA (1775-1783), funded mainly ginseng ( youngsik2004bhu ).
In the '70s were stimulating and healing effects of ginseng considered proven
Soviet research soon became an inspiration for scientists worldwide. It was clarified chemical composition of ginseng ( fujita1962csg , kitagawa1963psp , kaku1975css etc.) and its pharmacology in broad terms ( takagi1972psp etc.). In the early 70s were the effects of ginseng against tiredness considered "well-documented" ( takagi1974epg ). From the '60s and' 70s was about ginseng published several reports, well-known for its effect against high blood pressure ( hah1978epg ), hypoglycemic and antidiabetic effect ( ng1985hcp ) and other effects. This 'honest' phase of ginseng research, well summarizes chong1988gtu who speaks about the clear effect of anti-fatigue effect on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory , antitumor and antiviral effect. Describes even contradictory panaxosidů effects on the nervous system (budivý effect Panaxosidy Rg 1 versus a calming effect Rb 1 ).
90s - from objectivity to propaganda
On one hand, new molecular methods allow a detailed, sometimes already quantitative description of the active substances of ginseng. On the other hand, however, he appeared an unprecedented influx of biased articles aimed against ginseng and herbs in general. Moving away from objectivity but occurs even in publications which sympathize with herbal treatment. Suspicious are some Korean publications, but also western researches directly or indirectly financed by the sellers of ginseng and other herbs. Such surveys are usually focused on the effectiveness of specific commercial herbal products or brands. We can say that disinterested research on the subject of herbal treatments generally getting into the minority.
In medical journals recently appeared protiženšenová and generally protibylinné propaganda
On the negative publications evaluating herbal treatment in general and specifically žešen ( pugh2008mvm , vogler1999egs , koren1990mgu , wilkie1994grj , miller1998hms ...) is suspected of several things: suddenly began to appear in the mid 90s when herbs started to seriously compete with conventional medicines; appear mainly in magazines targeted physician (eg Journal of the American Medical Association); ignore or flout the most current scientific results ... The intention, however, prove difficult. Ginseng has contradictory, each other balancing effects on physiological parameters and it is not easy for him to distinguish the honest and necessary scientific skepticism from negative propaganda, especially when it is written cleverly. So I was pleased when I discovered article messina2006hsf (which was published in the Journal of Nursing Perianesthesia, 2006), on which one can clearly demonstrate that at least some of the articles negatively evaluating herbal treatment
- They are written with proven deceptive intent,
- deliberately ignoring the most current results,
- are 100% incorrect in its statements about the main issue, though articles are written as clear,
- is not ashamed to use false statements to the fictional references,
- the authors and editors of the relevant scientific journals published with impunity.
On a separate page, and analyze word by word ginseng disproves the whole section of the article messina2006hsf , which I was able, thanks to the author's blatant approach to falsification of science. (Again, my criticism does not apply to skeptical publications in general - for any mention must wilkie1994grj , despite its skeptical attitude acts honestly.)
The other side of the coin: excessive enthusiasm of commercial research
After science has opened the door to formal acceptance of ginseng as medicine, its commercial potential aroused a wave Already recent acquisitive- motivated by scientific interest headed by Korea. Korean Research Institute for tobacco and ginseng and other Korean institutions churn out positive to enthusiastic results about the healing properties of ginseng, which essentially call "
Finally, inappropriate enthusiasm in the research of adaptogens is often not even connected to greed - Researchers to your topic ever fall in love or have a need to feel that a negative outcome is the result, and that he must at all costs to produce optimistic interpretation. So when he finds necessary to trigger some herbs influence of some kind of white blood cells interpret it as a " boost immunity ", while not inhibiting effect interprets as "weakened immunity ', but as' potential effect against autoimmune reactions'. Specifically, ginseng is immunomodulatory effect particularly challenging issue.
Panaxosidy and other content substances of ginseng on a molecular level the farther the better explored. Serious research on ginseng today does not address already speculating whether the effects of ginseng are myth or reality, but has shifted to the exact quantitative analysis.
Regarding the clinical effect, and we will not have long to put him on the properties of the individual panaxosidů inferred. That's a problem which surprisingly suffer even drugs that have called. Main effect. Their main short-term effect is significant and predictable, but in the long term the overall situation in the organism rather worsen (whether we're talking about relievers, sedatives or antibiotics). The ambition of adaptogens is the overall situation in the organism without the emphasis on improving the "main" effect.
Entwined create a calculator dosage of ginseng and its panaxosidů respect to those effects that were previously described quantitatively. Before her finish but will continue to apply, that the best system for clinical use of ginseng is a system of traditional Chinese medicine. Since ginseng is harmless , another acceptable system is the self-regulatory treatment, thus the use of ginseng 'by feeling' supervised MD. physician knowledgeable in the issues of adaptogens.