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Wolfberry (Lycium chinense Mill. Ex DC.)

too gouqi , Goji, goji, wolfberry (L. chinense Mill.), Chinese matrimony vine

goji foreign
Foreign goji - Lycium barbarum (source: Flora von Deutschland, by Prof. Dr. Otto Wilhelm Thomé, Österreich und der Schweiz, 1885, Gera, Germany)

Wolfberry is TCM medicinal plant whose fruits are often used together with ginseng and other adaptogens. Wolfberry has a high content of zeaxanthin, and other carotenoids. A powerful antioxidant, protects the eye and slows the aging process. The effects of goji except carotenoids mainly contribute its specific proteoglycan polysaccharides. In English it is known as the goji wolfberry / goji. Goji word has come to us through English from Chinese枸杞(pronounced ko-ko-ki, or chi, pinyin gouqi) and indicates the fruits of this plant. Wolfberry can grow with us (the frost), but begets bad, so it is more convenient to buy it dried.

Basic information about the family goji (Lycium)

The genus Lycium but includes more than 70 species that occur in the subtropics around the world ( Fukuda2001pbg ). In Eurasia, we find three main native species (by: GRIN taxon. Database , eFloras database , Feinbrun1968glf )

  • foreign goji (Lycium barbarum L.), originating in China
  • wolfberry (Lycium chinense Mill.) original throughout Southeast Asia
  • European goji (Lycium europaeum L.), originating in the Mediterranean and Asia Minor

All three species are morphologically well distinguishable ( Feinbrun1968glf ) and molecular ( Fukuda2001pbg ). European goji has flowers white or pink, the other two have a reddish flowers ( Dostal1989nkc , Volume 2, p. 892). Wolfberry has leaves petiolate, ovate rather than lanceolate, while the foreign goji has leaves more lanceolate and almost no petiole ( Rothmaler2009evd , Volume 3, p. 429). As the fruit is used practically wolfberry, which is grown for its large, sweet fruits ( Yin2005apr ). Other types of goji are also active, but their small fruits are not suitable for collection. Goji Foreign goji and Europe are our sometimes very abundant, their leaves can prepare healthy herbal tea.

Wolfberry for medical purposes recognizes our TCM herbal medicine ( Potterat2010glb ). European goji (L. europaeum) used by ancient physicians in the treatment of inflammation and eye diseases ( Hitchcock1932msg ). The plant is also used for the reinforcement of slopes and erosion in ornamental plantings, it was once very popular. Goji foreign and wolfberry are currently the subject of intense research.

Content substance goji

Wolfberry contains a large amount of carotenoids (mainly zeaxanthin) and the specific proteoglycan polysaccharides, which constitute up to 30% dry weight. Carotenoids and polysaccharides protect neurons and the retina, has a positive effect on the eye, reducing cell stress and improve immunity. Other beneficial metabolites wolfberry include betaine, β-sitosterol, coumarins, vitamins, minerals and amino acids.

  • lycium polysaccharides (LP) - The most important specific component of goji.
  • carotenoids - The fruit is contained in a large amount (up to 0.5% dry weight, Peng2005qzd ), their amount increases during maturation ( Piao2005ckc ). Up to 70% of the carotenoids zeaxanthin goji forms, mainly as zeaxanthin dipalmitate (fysalin, Inbaraj2008dce ). Present are other forms of zeaxanthin. The residue consists of carotenoids lutein, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, and more. Zeaxanthin dipalmitate is very well bioavailable, the body easily absorb it and employ ( Breithaupt2004cpr ).
  • flavonoids - Goji contains many kinds of flavonoids, of which 40% are quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol and rutin ( Le2007iqa , Qian2004efp )
  • vitamins - Carotenoids wolfberry acting as provitamin A. In other vitamins such as wolfberry comprises riboflavin (vit. B 2), nicotinic acid (vit. B 3), thiamine (vit. B 1), tocopherols (Vit. E) and ascorbic acid ( vit. C) at ~ 42mg / 100 g, about as fresh lemons ( Potterat2010glb ).
  • Minerals - Wolfberry contains significant amounts of calcium (112 mg / 100 g), phosphorus and iron ( Qian2004efp ) traces selenium, germanium, copper, zinc and others.
  • free amino acids - wolfberry them contains a relatively large amount (1 - 2.7%), most proline. Represented they are also non-protein amino acids, e.g. betaine (trimethylglycin), taurine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). ( Chen1991aaa )
  • - others, such as β-sitosterol, daukosterol, Scopoletin acid, p-coumaric and derivative dopamine lyciumid And yet isolated only from goji ( Zou1999ndd ), fatty acids (acid. linoleic β-elemen and acid. myristic Altintas2006ceo ). The completely zanebatelných levels (19ppb in dry matter) can be detected in fruits alkaloid atropine ( Adams2006hta ).

effects of wolfberry

Foreign goji berries (goji)
Foreign goji berries (goji)

Goji meets the definition of an adaptogen. It complements the traditional Chinese soups and TCM mixtures. The TCM is considered a tonic that nourishes the kidneys, liver and eyes ( Chang2008uah ). Independent research confirms the effects of aging cells and protect against fading eyesight ( Burke2005mcr ).

Thanks to the unique composition of goji has many positive effects on human health.

Goji, goji berries, are undoubtedly among the most valuable fruit rainbow. Rough water extract of Goji LBP in the literature has several beneficial effects:

How to use goji

Goji berries (Goji) can be consumed directly or added to teas, soups, salads, desserts or other dishes. Some tout it as a miracle fruit ( see ). I would like to go even further in praising By designating the whole family Solanaceae for a miraculous goji it as a welcome complement to the sweet miracle tomatoes, peppers, eggplant gooseberry and black. We can improve our health that we use wolfberry in the kitchen instead of raisins, unless, of course, will increase the total dose. Goji is a suitable substitute sweets for children and adults. The recommended daily dose is 6-30 grams of dry fruits.

Adjusting for consumption (for example):

  • Goji can be consumed without modification.
  • Cook daily dose of goji in a half liter of water 5-10 minutes. Cook is also possible in the wine, or add some dried plums (or cicimku , if you have one). Drink in two doses fasting including fruits.
  • Wine - 1Kg comminuted fruit is placed in a fabric bag and immersed in a vessel containing 10 liters of water. The vessel was hermetically sealed and allowed to ferment for 14 days. It is then used in two deciliters per day preferably in two doses.
  • Tincture - 80 g is leached in one liter of 60% ethanol for about 3 weeks. At the end, add a little honey and use 2-3 tablespoons empty stomach, also in fruit.
  • Tablespoon wolfberry also improves chicken or beef soup or roasted meat. Fruits eat after heat treatment.

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