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How to use Soxhlet extractor?

Hello, I bought on the Internet 30 grams of ginseng six-leaf. I have Soxhlet and my question is:

  1. How long to extract. It recommended one hour compared to several weeks leaching he still falls a little low. I know somehow that it's done?
  2. Extraction yield is significantly higher than the decoction?
  3. How many drops of tincture or more ml. I try on my first experience with ginseng?

Jindra

Good day to you, Mr. Henry!

1st Question - How long extract

The answer to this question will be with your kind forgiveness rather longer. You can get it for yourself - who asks that he hears :-). Soxhlet in its essence is nothing more than an elution column with recycling solvents. The period of extraction column generally depends on four factors:

  1. specific rate of diffusion of substances extracted into the solvent
  2. granulometry extracted material
  3. Quality construction extractor
  4. temperatures

Let them point by point:

1st Specific rate of diffusion of substances extracted into the solvent

Depends both on the relative affinity of the substance to be extracted to the extracted material / her affinity to the solvent, and on the rate of diffusion of the substance soaked in solvent extracted particles, which in turn depends on the molecular weight of extracted substances, viscosity solvents and complexity of the internal pores of the extracted particles. Soxlehetova property extractor is that it theoretically allows extracting 100% even if the affinity ratio is very bad, therefore the solute remains bound substantially better than the material dissolved in a solvent - only in this case takes longer. In the case of ginseng těmihle problems fortunately do not have too much to deal with - the active ingredient in ginseng are no extra tightly bound to their molecular weight is low (max. A couple of 100 Da) and even the less polar to dissolve at least a little bit in the clean water, not to mention the mixture water and alcohol.

Second Granularity of extracted material

The finer grinding, the faster diffusion out of particles, but the greater the flow resistance of the column. Its role and shape of particles. I'm not an expert on laboratory methods, but from cell biology remember a simple rule that the body temperature diffusion at micrometer distances happens in fractions of seconds to tens of microns in seconds to hundreds of micrometers in minutes. In our particular case, the root of ginseng are three options - Sprinkle there the slices as they are, grind them coarsely (should be roztlouct) or grind to a fine powder (which is normally done on the coffee grinder with rotating knives, as I wrote in another reply on our website ). In this particular case would be technically optimal grind was about as fine as it gets with regard to flow rate cartridge, but if you do not do it on an industrial scale, do not rip with it - is almost as good to use the slices as they are.

3. Quality construction extractor

For ideal column and an ideal solvent elution time asymptotically approaching the time flow of solvent through the column (= cartridge), which would in normal larger Soxhlet estimated the order of minutes. However, but we just use the Soxhlet extraction difficult to overcome, therefore we expect that we will need tens of discharges. Flow rate cartridge is limited both Soxhlet distillation performance, partly flow capacity of the cartridge itself (is less restrictive of the two values). Another problem is the regularity of the flow - if, for example. Middle distillate drips patrons, the core columns quickly leached, while the lagging edge. These parameters but depends on the design of your extractor, so you do not have a chance to influence.

4. The temperature

Deserves special mention temperature. Operating temperature is normal Soxhlet due to the boiling point of the solvent used under a given pressure and can be controlled only by changing this pressure. At higher temperature, faster diffusion and better extraction for sensitive substances, but it is necessary to use lower temperatures. For ginseng again this one do not care too much - panaxosidy easily survive even long cooking in water and the boiling temperature of the alcohol mixture is even lower.

To sum up:

Ginseng , and especially red ginseng is to extract as easy prey that it can do calculations without the extractor on inferior quality. A careful reading of the page to extract you can see, I'm not saying that to extract the "hour", but "at least an hour." I expect that in an hour even inferior elution column extractor travels several times the effective length of the extraction thimble, which for red ginseng was fully sufficient. Extraction time longer than an hour I do not prescribe mandatory. Panaxosidy are highly stable, some of them but still slowly decompose and split off sugar malonylových residues. It is not clear if the resolution is good or bad. In Asian cooking recipes with long straight recommends ginseng, red ginseng but he has a long steaming in its production. Therefore, second long cooking do not want to prescribe mandatory. Concerning several weeks leaching, this takes place at a temperature below about 80 ° C. We know that around room temperatures speed conventional reactions increases roughly twice as temperature increases by every ten K at 20 ° C it goes thus about 256 times slower than at 100 ° C - so instead of hours at room temperature must lye weeks.

How do you know that it's over

The color red ginseng during leaching loses. Completely leached slices increases, it loses flavor and aroma acquire off-white color, which further leaching unchanged. They are called ginseng cakes and usually still contain immunostimulating polysaccharides.

Question 2. - If extraction is better than leaching

Not hardly, but what is better is to use a mixture of alcohol instead of pure water - it is easier to dissolve non-polar substances and panaxosidy those who, due to some heating of sugars lost their skeletons. And if you use alcohol and you do not lye weeks, so the temperature you need to boiling point, which in turn can make the pot on the stove, as they will soon evaporate not only most of the alcohol, but came would also most volatile fragrances supplying Ginseng its characteristic aroma . For this reason, you need alcohol to cook in an enclosed space, ie in the extractor, in which the escaping solvent vapors are condensed and recycled.

Question 3. I - How many tinctures used to get acquainted with ginseng

I personally getting to know ženšnem recommended for ordinary users daily dose of 5-6 grams of red ginseng drugs. At this dose no longer can be clearly seen the effects of ginseng, which the user can subjectively assess: mental activation , improve erection , or limit pain , inflammation , and autoimmune conditions . Strictly speaking, the user hears clearly if in his case ginseng and engages both, because as any other drug or ginseng occupies always. For greater effect and be more confident to acquaint also enjoy significantly higher doses - ginseng as an adaptogen model is not in large quantities is not harmful and does not affect the physiological state of the organism unloaded.

Regarding the dosing of liquid extract, you yourself must know how you concentrated tincture prepared (ie, how many grams of drugs have in 100 ml). If eg. You have 25 grams in 100 ml of dry ginseng extract, you must use 20 ml of tincture that you can get yourself into the equivalent of 5 grams of ginseng dry. Alcohol milliliter doses is said to be beneficial. If you want to be absolutely certain that they and only acquainted with ginseng, you can certainly use water leach. The required dose of ginseng depends on your metabolism and weight. Follow your feelings, ginseng is neotrávíte.

-boris-

| 31.1.2009

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