Current pharmacological concept of the drug in Western (Euro-American) drug practice has long been Paracelsian. Though adaptogens and medicinal plants again gaining recognition, it is appropriate to clarify that the assessment of medicines and all pharmaceutical legislation is still implicitly governed paracelsovským look.
Paracelsus and his pharmaceutical innovation
Paracelsus in the 16th century, a great pioneer the use of minerals and inorganic substances in the European pharmacotherapy, which was then based mainly on herbs. He was successful in the treatment of syphilis mercury salts administered in small doses, publish ban he received after he justifiably called by then used guaiac wood for ineffective against syphilis. True stories that Paracelsus engaged in witchcraft, alchemy, hermetism, examining the so-called. Signatures of minerals, making amulets and treatment so. Astral body to reject construed as slander. On the contrary, I see in them the desire to generalize medical science, which got better shape in the 20th century in a unified theory of medicine , which follows the concept of an adaptogen. In this sense, Paracelsus and modern scientists dealing with Adaptogens do the same. Chronic poisoning with arsenic compounds and mercury eventually Paracelsus himself died . After his death fame paracelsovských drugs continued to grow, especially in the treatment of syphilis and in general antibacterial agents, until in the 20th century, culminating discovery Salvarsan, antibiotic compounds, bismuth, penicillin, sulfonamides, tetracyclines and modern antibiotics ( Aminov2010bha ).
In the hilt of his sword worn Paracelsus your secret remedy: laudanum. It was an opioid analgesic in the form of tiny pills .
According to Paracelsus maxim "sola dosis facit venenum" is any active substance, poison or drug in a dose dependent manner. This maxim teachers liked to illustrate the fact that even the water or glucose in a sufficient amount can poison. Paracelsian drug as the treatment is very popular and poisonous substances, whose potency expresses therapeutic index - inverse ratio effective dose (ED 50) to the toxic doses (LD 50). According paracelsovského perspective because each drug associated with a specific indication - ie. Main effect, the ED 50 enters the therapeutic index. Other effects are referred to as secondary. Paracelsian view on drugs is as follows:
- Each drug has a specific indication (main effect), and it has the effective dose (ED 50).
- Every substance is a poison, and therefore every drug has lethal dose (LD 50). The ratio LD 50 / ED 50 indicates the quality of the drug.
- Effects outside the main effect is known as side effects.
When I say that today's legislation is governed by the aforementioned look, overdoing. Between toxins and drugs is not distinguish at all. Only distinguishes between strongly and weakly active substances. For example, Ministry of Health Decree no. 343/2003 Coll. divided medicinal plants on a "very potent", "potent" and "other", in which poisonous plants (spurge, hellebore, nightshade, oleander, mandrake, castor, monkshood, yew, hellebore ...) ranks among "very highly effective ". To differentiate between the drugs and poisons further causes that are not spoken about the toxicity of drugs, but about the side effects.
Paracelsian view with adaptogens can not cope
Paracelsian legislative view of adaptogens not fit. Staring at them as food ( "food supplements"), placebo ( "herbs"), or as a cure. Good adaptogens have LD 50 and can not therefore quantify their therapeutic index. Adaptogens also have a major effect. Adaptogens effective dose (ED 50) in specific indications can be measured, but it does not express the overall quality of adaptogen. This issue was resolved to the definition that adaptogen introduced as a separate drug ideal to which the real drugs can more or less close.
I do not suspect Paracelsus even today lawmaker from ignorance of the fact that the effective drugs exist and totally harmless. Paracelsus was a pioneer worthy. It's not like that any theory that he created today lawmaker seduced astray. Paracelsian paradigm of a legislature chosen because they best suit its interests. Pharmaceutical legislation has been introduced largely as a response to scandals with poisons such as cocaine and opium pills of 20 years, OTC radioactive preparations for internal use of 30 years and thalidomide scandal in the 50s of the 20th century. Institutionalization of drugs, including harmless medicinal plants, is just one of many facets of the ongoing institutionalization of all aspects of human life and the proliferation of laws to which in the 20th century. (See also comparison and adaptogens paracelsovských drugs ).