Receptors γ-aminobutyric acid (γ-aminobutyrate, GABA) are the most abundant receptors in the brain. GABA receptors are divided into ionotropic GABA A receptors (chloride channels) and metabotropic GABA B receptors.
GABA receptors are inhibitory and act on them even alcohol or sleeping pills. The actual acid γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is sometimes sold as a nutritional supplement to facilitate sleep. But that effect by oral administration of this neurotransmitter has never been proven. Brain cells themselves caring for an optimal supply of GABA for signaling purposes. We must not be tempted to consider us as a kind of endogenous GABA hypnotic, which may be given orally.
Most of the neurons of the brain works that exhibit spontaneous activity that is continuously suppressed by the action of γ-aminobutyric acid via GABA receptors. Greater inhibition of some neurons can lead to activation of other neurons.
Alcohol and GABA receptors
Neuroscience for long periods of the last century was not sure how to actually alcohol causes drunkenness. Even in elementary school biology teacher told us that ethanol works that dissolves in fat lipid membranes of cells and changing its permeability. Since then, it became increasingly clear that a small molecule ethanol affects a large number of specific nerve receptors and that they are quantitatively the most important is the bond of ethanol on GABA A receptors.
GABA receptors are most abundant receptors in the brain. Strong agonists or antagonists of these receptors among adaptogens not find a definition, but they are often modulatory effects.
mechanism of action
Extract model adaptogens ginseng slows the uptake of GABA into synapses rat ( tsang1985gsi ) which would theoretically increase the effect of GABA. A similar effect of ginseng was found but also of other neurotransmitters: glutamate, dopamine , norepinephrine and serotonin , so the overall effect of ginseng on the CNS can be derived is not easy and is not based on the influence of a single receptor.
Panaxosidy related to GABA receptors
For ginsenosides Rb 1 , Rb 2 , Rc , Re , Rf and Rg 1 was shown to be reversible binding to GABA A and GABA B receptors ( Kimura1994igw ). The total saponin fractions and pure ginsenosides Re and Rf enhance binding of flunitrazepam (Rohypnol) on GABA receptors ( Kimura1994igw ).
The overall effect of ginseng GABAergic
Extract of Panax quinquefolius at a dose of 3μg solids per milliliter of dampening the activity of neurons of the brain stem (specifically the solitary tract nucleus, rat) and counteract irritation n. Vagus about 27%, less than twice the reference GABA agonist muscimol in conc. 30μM. Ginseng but not agonist but stabilizer: Ginseng extract protects neurons from the effect of higher doses of muscimol and the effect of ginseng is not reversible GABA antagonist bicuculline ( Yuan1998mag ). This would indicate likely to assume neurostoroidal stabilizing effect. Also at Panaxosidy Majonosid -R 2 shows that the anti-stress effect is at least partially caused by an effect on GABA A receptors ( Huong1998aem ).
GABAergic effects in the realm of adaptogens
(List of GABAergic adaptogens this course not exhausted.)