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Dopamine and cerebral dopamine receptors

Dopaminergic system

Dopaminergic neurons are located in the brain in the ventral tegmental region (VTA), in substantia nigra and in the hypotalamus in the nucleus arcuatus . A nigrostriatal pathway emerges from substantia nigra , the existence of which most people learn about Parkinson's disease . From the hypothalamic core nucleus arcuatus to our third eye, the corpus pineale leads a few dopaminergic fibers of the tuberoinfundibular paths, whose functions escape me because the biorhythm leads to the stomach elsewhere, and the literature does not want me to read because of the few axons. The paths that made dopamine really famous are those that come from the ventral tegmental region (VTA): the mesocortical and mesolimbic path.

The mesolimbic track is always at the forefront of the popularity of the brain drain, because it is thought to be related to the motivation of human behavior. It seems that it is what determines what will bother and bore us. The mesocortical path ends in the bark of the frontal lobe where, according to my fantasies, our ego could be located and who has, even the superhero. The inter-lane track leads to the structures of the limbic system, where, according to my naive ideas, our childish boss, whose cocaine fighter Sigmund Freud christened by id, is home . Certainly, it is much more complicated, as the computer says in Stanishe Lema's story, people have to imagine something. Descartes has long argued that the seat of the soul is a cerebral pineal gland. This would be ridiculed by the soul loop today , proclaimed a message loop that runs from the hippocampal center of GABAergne to the VTA center of interest, from there dopaminergically to the bark of the frontal lobe and from there back to the hippocampus.

Dopamine inactivation by dopamine antagonists has long been used in medical practice to "successfully" treat a set of diseases called schizophrenia .

Dopamine receptors

Adaptogens with dopamine and dopaminergic neurons

As well as memory and memory impairment are often explained in a simplified manner by cholinergic system irregularities, schizophrenia is often associated with the dopamine system. It is related to motivation, it affects the frontal lobe of the brain and the limbic system. Dopamine receptors are related to drug addiction. Cocaine and methamphetamine act directly on the dopaminergic system: They amplify dopamine signaling in the brain center of drug addictions - nucleus accumbens . Other addictive substances act indirectly on dopamine. Nicotine, for example, by acting on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors will eventually increase dopamine in the corpus striatum (older smokers will stop shaking hands) and nucleus accumbens (a habit can occur). Even alcoholism (GABA receptors), morphinism (opioid receptors), and other dependencies ultimately lead to dopamine leakage into the nucleus accumbens .

Ginseng protects dopaminergic neurons from dying

Treatment of drug addiction is a traditional indication of genuine ginseng . This indication was discovered in the TČM empirically and steadily passed from generation to generation. Only then came biology with dozens of experiments concentrating on the dopamine system. Because drug addiction is detrimental to the brain, an interest in the protective effects of ginseng content on drug-dependent neurons was also sought. Another area of interest is Parkinson's disease , in which the dopaminergic neurons die, and it would be advisable to find a way to protect them.

  • Kim1995bbg , Tokuyama1996ege , Lee2008ieg - The total extract of ginseng saponins blocks dopamine secretion into the nucleus accumbens , acts against dopamine sensitization, and normalizes the hyperactive behavior of addicted rats after cocaine.
  • Kim1999ibg - ginsenoside Rb 1 and ginsenoside Rg 1 in mice have anti-dopaminergic effects on cocaine and sensitization of dopamine signaling.
  • Halladay describes the interaction between the total extract of ginseng saponins and amphetamine, concluding that ginseng saponins seem to act on the dopamine system.
  • Kim1995ibg - Gross ginseng extract and panaxoside fraction suppressed dopaminergic sensitivity in morphinism.
  • Shim2000meg , Kim2006egs - Effect of total ginseng saponins against dopamine leakage in n. Accumbens and against changes in gene expression of dopaminergic neurons after nicotine administration.
  • In the experimental Parkinson's disease model, ginsenoside Rg1 protects nerve cells (PC12) from apoptosis due to dopamine doping. ( Chen2003gra )
  • Ginsenoside Rd protects dopaminergic cells by experimentally activating the microglia in vitro . ( Lin2007gra )

Other herbs

I realize that the enumeration of herbs with effect on the dopaminergic system is grossly incomplete. And because I am writing this web myself, it will never be complete. I want to point out that many of the completely harmless adaptogens have mechanistically demonstrated the effect on the mono-amino-system (including the dopamine system) and on other brain receptor systems, so it can not be said that these plants are in principle ineffective "pancakes". For further reading, I offer an article on anti-depressant adaptogens.

| 23.10.2010