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14. ginsenoside 20 (S) -Rg3

Ginsenoside 20 ( S ) -Rg3

It is a damaran, protopanaxadiol panaxoside, which is produced for the most part during processing (steaming) of ginseng on red ginseng:

Ginsenoside 20 (S) -Rg3

R 1 = -Glc 2-1 Glc
R2 = H

  • Gssd. 20 (S) Rg 3 is mostly formed in the stomach by hydrolysis of gssd. Rb 1 . ( Christensen2009gcb )
  • Gssd. Rg 3 is the major panaxoside responsible for the endothelium-dependent relaxation of blood vessels (in vitro rats of in vitro rats, Kim1999grm ). This effect is at gssd. Rg 3 is about 100 times greater than the gssd effect . Rg 1 , its mechanism is apparently activation of K + channels of endothelium.
  • Gssd. Rg 3 causes the aortic rat ring relaxation due to phenylephrine to increase NO production. ( Kim2003gri )
  • Gssd. 20 ( S ) Rg 3 , but not its 20 ( R ) epimer , causes a strong endothelium independent relaxation of the porcine coronary artery strips previously contracted by 25 mM KCl. The reason is probably the different effects of epimers on K + channels. ( Kim2006seg )
  • Both epimers gssd. Rg3 cause relaxation of the porcine coronary artery strips with intact endothelium after previous contraction caused by 3 μM serotonin. ( Kim2006seg )
  • In stressed mice, plasma cortisol is reduced. ( Kim2003iii )
  • Prevents increased levels of the stress indicator of putrescine in the CNS under immobilization stress. ( Lee2006aeg )
  • In experiments on ionotropic receptors expressed in clays oocytes, the inhibitory effect of gssd was measured. 20 (S) -Rg 3 to the P / Q type Ca 2+ channels, Kv 1.4 K + channel and Na + channel IIA rat brain, whose IC50 in μM were in the order of 30.1 ± 2.6; 58.6 ± 3.3 and 29.2 ± 8.5 with Hill coefficients in a row of 1.9; 1.8 and 1, indicating that the Na + channels examined block 1 gssd molecule. Rg 3 , while Ca 2+ and K + channels require two to block the molecule. R epimer on the examined Na + , K + and Ca 2+ channels do not act. Both epimers approximately equally inhibit the HT3A and α3β4 receptors nACh with IC50 in μM in series 47.1 ± 20.5 and 82.1 ± 9.1 and Hill coefficients ≈1 ( Jeong2004sgr )
  • It reduced expression of cytokines in the activated microglia, inhibited the binding of NF-κB transcription factor to DNA binding sites, and improved survival of nerve cells. It further blocked the expression of NOS2 (iNOS) and increased the expression of MSRA ( macrophage scavenger receptor type A ). ( Joo2008pin )
  • It acts inhibitory (70% inhibition at 10μM gssd, Rg 3 ) on the NMDA receptors in the hippocampus via a glycine binding site. ( Kim2004gra )
  • It acts inhibitory on adipocyte proliferation ( Han2006g2p ).
  • In an in vitro model of arthritis, chondrocytes were protected from destruction. ( So2013peg )
  • Gssd. 20 ( S ) Rg 3 , but not its 20 ( R ) epimer acts against the AGS cells of the stomach cancer . ( Park2014sae )

| 9.3.2009