Cancer is the leading cause of death in a civilized world. A common feature of tumors is that the population of their own cells starts to grow uncontrollably at the expense of the organism. This multiplication can be stopped after a number of generations - then it is benign , such as maternal signs, adenomas, intestinal polyps, and small tumors within the body that we do not even know about. By contrast, malignant (malignant) tumor cells will never stop dividing and often have metastatic capability - spreading to distant parts of the body. Cancer in the broader sense means any malignant cancer. In the narrower sense, cancer is a malignant tumor originating from the epithelium of the skin or mucosa - carcinoma . Less common sarcoma is a malignant tumor of the connective tissue.
Healthy cells have many inhibitions against unlimited division. For example, contact inhibition: The cell stops dividing when there is no free space. Then there's Hayflick's limit: most cells can not grow all the time, but it's limited to a dozen divisions. Most body ( somatic ) cells also have the ability to divide permanently - they are terminally differentiated . The ability to divide into the body retains only a small fraction of cells - stem cells . They are activated during injury, but in some tissues they are still active. Therefore, tissues that grow and regenerate in adulthood - skin, mucosa, mammary gland, gonads ...
Compared to somatic cells, tumor cells are undifferentiated. They remind stem cells - they are as young as they are, dividing and preparing to create some useful tissue, but they will never reach this end. In the beginning, tumor cells behave almost normally and retain their original function. For example, hormone malfunctions occur in pituitary, adrenal and other endocrine tumors because tumor cells are still dealing with their original occupation - hormone production. Tumor cells also, from the beginning, have a considerable desire to differentiate, ie to actually create a tissue that they are preparing to make. Often, only a mild chemical stimulus is sufficient to make the tumor cell decide to grow and become a functional, terminally differentiated somatic cell ( Kawamata2006dts ).
During cancer, cancer cells lose their inhibitions and good behavior. They also learn to escape recognition by the immune system, lose apoptosis and the will to differentiate, and gradually adapt to the cytostatics the doctor is trying to heal. The development of cancer is a stochastic process of biological evolution taking place in the cancer cell population. To understand the phenomenon of malignant overthrow, it is important to remember that each malignant tumor:
- It originates from a single cell of a specific tissue.
- In its multiplication, evolutionary leaps stochastically progress towards greater malignancy.
- Sooner or later he will confront the host's immune system.
These characteristics also show why cancer is so difficult to treat. Since the beginning, cancer cells are virtually no different from normal cells, and it is hard to invent a poison that selectively kills them without damaging the whole body. The ability of cancer cells to evolve in turn means that even if a physician, by means of a substance or treatment method, keeps the disease temporarily in check, the cancer cells will develop resistance over time and the given substance / method will cease to work. For relapse, it is enough to survive the survival of one single viable cancer cell.
Let us also point out that people are very well aware of the anti-cancer immunity. Man is naturally a long-lived animal and he is better equipped than most vertebrates. Throughout our lives, our immune system detects and destroys dozens of tumors without bothering to inform us. While mice and rats are dying for cancer after 1 year, dogs and cats receive cancer after 5 years, the human immune system allows us to survive 5 decades of active life in relative safety. This is our advantage, but on the other hand it also means that when the doctor comes with a malignant patient, his immune system has failed in his position and missed his best chance of applying anti-cancer immunity. The risk of cancer is rising sharply during the age of man's age, which is relatively rapid during the six decades of life. Susceptibility to cancer in old age is increasing not only because we have in DNA the damage accumulated over a lifetime, but also because of total body dyscrasias and immunity. The stochastic nature of malignancy and the course of the disease is the reason why cancer occurs only in some people and progresses differently in different patients.
For the reasons already mentioned, prevention and treatment of cancer will always be a difficult problem. The medical advances in the treatment of cancer are mild, despite the cost of its research. For some cancers, the likelihood of cure has increased slightly (prostate tumors, seminoma, malignant melanoma, lung, colon , stomach and esophageal cancer), in others (glioblastoma, hepatoma). Dangerous remains female females ( breast , ovaries and cervix). Cancer treatment has three standard components:
- Surgical treatment - resection of the tumor bearing (bearing).
- Cytostatic treatment - Destruction of cancer cells by selective poisons or radiation.
- Supportive care - regeneration of the body and strengthening of the immune system
In addition, biomolecule (immunotherapy), hormonal therapy, differentiation induction therapy, etc., are used, but the above 3 modalities remain crucial. Adaptogens and anticancer fungi, which I point out here, generally belong to supportive treatment, but they also lack direct cytostatic effects. While conventional surgical and cytostatic therapies are detrimental to both the tumor and the body, adaptogens promote regeneration and restore the damaged immune system. Anti-cancerous sponges have direct antitumour effects by both stimulatory effects on cytotoxic immunity and pro-apoptotic effects on cancer cells. Research on these drugs is extensive, and I provide references in the following text.
Cancer cells from healthy cells are very difficult to distinguish. In fact, the only reliable distinctive feature is that cancer cells are divided unlimitedly. And it is this property that affects cytostatic treatment.
Cytostatic effect is generally any effect that damages or kills dividing cells, but is relatively harmless to resting, non-dividing cells. For example, this property has radiation. Ionizing radiation most damages the dividing cells and therefore radiotherapy is used to destroy tumors. An even more specific effect on the dividing cells has chemical cytostatics - mitotic poisons used in chemotherapy. It is, for example, 5-fluorouracil, which blocks the synthesis of thymidine - one of four DNA stones, which has no other use in the cell. Many of the cytotoxic agents used are of natural origin: Vinca alkaloids (vinblastine, vincristine), yew taxanes, podophyllotoxin, camptothecin, bacterial streptomycin,
Unfortunately, many other cells are separated in addition to cancer cells and are damaged in the same way as a tumor in cytostatic treatment. They are epithelial cells of the skin, mucous membranes, growth zones of hair roots, nail beds, and stem cells of hematopoiesis, from which both red and white blood cells rise. Cytostatic treatment is a terrifying experience in which patients suffer from tremendous fatigue, nausea, anorexia and loss of fertility. Hair looks and lines appear on the nails (Beau line). One of the worst consequences is a severe damage to the immune system by destroying white blood cells.
Targeted cancer therapy
Since the very beginning of cytostatic treatment, doctors have tried to limit this to cancer cells only. For radiotherapy, for instance, the tumor bearing is targeted, while the rest of the body receives a relatively small dose. Chemotherapy has been targeting perfused organs since the 1950s. However, these methods fail with extensive metastases. In these cases, there is nowadays biological treatment (bio-therapy), more correctly immunological treatment.
Cure for cancer is nothing new. There has long been an effort to create anticancer vaccines. The main problem is that the patient's own immune system is usually heavily damaged by cytostatic therapy. In today's immunotherapy, therefore, anti-cancer cells are artificially produced and administered to the patient in-house. This is a good commercial strategy, not a miraculous method. The physician actually imitates the immune system of the patient and faces a challenge in which the patient's natural immunity has failed once.
Very promising is the combination of antibodies with α-radioisotopes, which then locally irradiate small tumorous deposits (targeted alpha therapy). Targeted alpha therapy has been devoted, for example, to No. 3 of Current Radiopharmaceuticals of September 2008 , from specific publications such as Tolmachev2007rth (lutetium 177 + HER2 antibodies against breast cancer ) and Liepe2009a2a (Alpharadin, Prostate Cancer Radiation 223). Research activity is progressing intensively in this field, see Gudkov2016trt for a review.
Supportive treatment of cancer
Supportive treatment is not secondary to cancer. While other diseases can rely on natural regeneration capacity, cytostatic cancer therapy will immune patients' immunity and regenerative capacity thoroughly. In the body, new and new stem cells are recruited during chemotherapy, attempting to regenerate and being destroyed. The patient will become physiologically aged for several years in a few months. It also suffers from the immune system in which maternal hematopoietic stem cells are destroyed in the bone marrow.
Ginseng Adaptogens protect against radiation and chemical damage and help with regeneration. These effects are scientifically documented, but it is important to ask whether cancer cells can be protected by analogy. According to experts it is not - specific adaptogens not only protect cancer cells but activate anti-cancer immunity and directly cause apoptosis of cancer cells. The direct effect against cancer cells is noticeable in anti-cancerous fungi - fungus adaptogens, which are typically glossy glossy. Again, the question is whether scientists examining adaptogens suffer from obliquity over their subject. This question exists and is being continuously addressed not only in adaptogens but also in any other sector of science. The miracle cure for cancer does not exist and is not even adapted to it. And there are restrictions that prevent scientists from finding a reliable cure for cancer.
Genus Genuine is an extraordinary adaptogen suitable for cancer
Ginseng research in cancer treatment focuses on 4 types of effects: (1) preventive, (2) protective and regenerative radiation and chemotherapy, (3) immunomodulatory and (4) direct antitumour, further subdivided into 3 subcategories.
1. Preventive effects : In terms of prevention of ginseng use, it correlates negatively with the incidence of cancer ( Shin2000cpp ) and can be attributed to specific panaxoside ( Shibata2001ccp , Wang2008icp , Choi2013bbc ). A randomized clinical trial confirming this phenomenon is Yun2010npe . The anti-inflammatory effect of ginseng ( Hofseth2007ict ) may also include cancer risk factors.
2. Protective and regenerative effects : The adaptogenic effect of ginseng against radiation damage is fully utilized in the treatment of cancer. Ginseng protects cells against irradiation, promotes regeneration of tissues and mainly the immune system ( Yonezawa1976rri , Takeda1981rri , Yonezawa1981rri , Takeda1982rri , Yonezawa1985rri ). According to clinical studies, ginseng improves the quality of life of cancer patients and limits the adverse effects of chemotherapy ( Kim2006esg , Yennurajalingam2015hag ).
Immunomodulatory effects : According to Takei2008dcp , ginseng has an immunomodulatory effect acting on the cytotoxic response. It increases the activity of NK cells ( Yun1993iat , Jang2015pnk , Takeda2015ink ) and macrophages ( Wang2010ita ) and thus contributes to anticancer immunity.
4. Direct antitumor effects : Panaxoside has been shown to have direct anti-tumor effects by Dr. Lars Christensen is divided into 3 groups: (1) cytostatic effect, (2) decreased malignancy, and (3) tumor growth inhibition in tumors ( Christensen2009gcb ). Recent reports of antitumor effects of ginseng are Wong2015rag and Wang2016rgc . The cytostatic effect is studied both in vitro on the cell lines and in vivo in animals. Numerous studies can not all be quoted, I choose: According to Wong2010age , ginseng extract was performed on a mouse model against pulmonary carcinoma. The ginseng also performed against human gastric carcinoma cells ( Hwang2015efg ), human gallbladder cancer ( Wu2015ers ), and human lymphoblastic leukemia ( Xia2016iap ) cells. Ginseng metabolite compound K acts against hepatoma cells ( Song2010imc ), ginsenoside F2 against glioblastoma in the rat model ( Shin2012aeg ), gssd. Rg 3 against human myeloma cells ( Li2016imm ) and ginseng acidic polysaccharides improved the results of the cytostatic treatment of melanoma in the mouse model ( Shin2004eae ). Gssd. Rg 3 and Compound K inhibit angiogenesis in lung, stomach and ovarian tumors ( Wang2015gmc ). Compound K acts by inhibition of p38 MAP kinase ( Jeong2010cib ) and sphingosine kinase 1 regulation ( Shin2014gci ). A slightly less inhibitory effect on angiogenesis has gssd. Rb 1 ( Papapetropoulos2007gor , Wang2015gmc ). Other panaxosides (eg, gssd, Rg 1 ) have opposite effects on vascular growth ( Sengupta2004may ).
Although I adapt adaptogens, as a scientist, I must admit that, despite all the research, the utility and irreplaceability of ginseng in cancer is not scientifically proven. It is not a question of whether or not herbal treatment of cancers - the recognized cytostatics are, for example, poisons of plant origin (vinblastine, taxol, podophyllotoxin etc., see previous sections). The question is, rather, to what extent model adapters such as ginseng and aloe overshadow popularity by less well-known adaptogens suitable for cancer. So: Although I am presenting a lot of scientific resources, I urge you to try ginseng not for scientific reasons, but for some others, for example from respect for the unscientific TCE . In developed countries using TCM (typically Taiwan), ginseng is one of the most common components of prescriptions prescribed by the TCM surgery department for cancer patients ( Lai2012ppc ).
Glossy Glossy is a "miracle" fungus against cancer
Of course, the title is not meant to be serious. Glossy gloss is an adaptogen containing a large amount of 100% non-terrestrial triterpenoid saponins - ganoderic acid, ganoderic acid, lucialdehyde, ganoderiol, and others (see Paterson2006gtf ). A total of 315 triterpenoids in the genus Ganoderma describe an overview of Xia2014crs , which is more than 182 triterpenoids described in the genus Panax ( Christensen2009gcb ). Lesklokorka also contains typically fungal β-glucans, polysaccharides and proteoglycans. Polysaccharides and other substances (e.g., polypeptides) are also considered to be carriers of the anti-rabies effects of glans. Glossy Glossy has no side effects ( Wachtelgalor2004gll , Kwok2005prd ).
Lesklokorka supports cytotoxic immune response ( Radwan2011air ). Its extract and pure β-glucan (fucogalactan) increase IL-23 outflow from dendritic cells and induce Th17 T lymphocyte differentiation ( Yoshida2012pit ). Glycophage polysaccharides accelerate proliferation of bone marrow macrophages and increase the production of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12β35, IL-12β40, IL-18, TNFα, IL-1β and IL-12 ( Ji2011ibm ). Ganoderma formosanum activates an in vivo anticancer immune response in cancer-affected mice ( Wang2014aai ).
Lesklokorka works against in-vitro colon cancer cell lines ( Thyagarajan2010tfg , Jedinak2011glt , Hong2004egl ) and reduces malignancy of gastric cancer cells ( Jang2011aae ). The direct cytotoxic effects of specific glomerular triterpenoids comment on Xia2014crs . According to Min2000tfs ganoderic acids c, d, e, z, n, and in vitro act against sarcoma and lung carcinoma cells. Ganoderic acid inhibits leukemia (HL-60) and ganoderliol E growth of breast cancer cells (MCF-7). According to Wang2010nga, ganoderic Mf, Mk and S kill lung cancer cells (95-D) and cervix (HeLa) at concentrations of 15-40μM. Ganoderic acid and lucid acids N and A act against hepatoma and leukemia cell lines ( Wu2001cgl ), ganodermic acid Ja against hepatoma cells ( Li2005gal ). Lucialdehyde B and C, ganodermanolol and ganodermanondiol act against lung cancer cells, breast cancer and sarcoma ( Gao2002nta ), luciadiol and ganoderiol F against HeLa cervical carcinoma cells ( Cheng2010ctf ), two other specific leukemia cell leukemias, cervical carcinoma, hepatoma and gastric cancer ( Guan2008clt ). According to Ma2012ltf , ganoderic acids A and C1 and luciformdehydes D and E, all at concentrations ~ 20μg / ml, are also anticancer.
G. lucidum was anticancer in vivo in transplanted liver cancer ( Chen2010pg1 ) and other tumors ( Trajkovic2009apg , Nonaka2006aaa ). G. lucidum had an in vivo immunostimulatory and anti- rabbing effect ( Gao2005aau , Pang2007pnp ) and prevents the development and metastases of lung cancer in mice exposed to cyclophosphamide carcinogen ( Nonaka2008eaf ). G. atrum had an anticancer effect on the mouse model ( Zhang2014pfg ). Ganoderic acid T reduces lung carcinoma cell malignancy in vivo ( Chen2010gai ).
In terms of clinical trials, Gao2003egg tested the effect of polysaccharides of glans in 30 advanced cancer patients and found an increase in CD56 + cell count and NK cell activity. Chen2006mir found an increase in the number of CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD56 + lymphocytes in 41 patients with advanced colon cancer using glans. Sun2014pal has also found improvements in immune parameters in lung cancer patients using glossary. The study of Oka2010wef in 96 patients (+ 102 controls) found that glossopause used for 12 months prevented the development of colorectal adenomas, neoplasms of which can develop colon and rectal cancer . When using glossy cork , cases of complete cure are known, Suprasert2014ccg reports on 5 of these patients.
Even more so than ginseng in glossy ice that regardless of the number of enthusiastic scientists recommending this sponge to the attention of doctors ( Sliva2003glr , Radwan2011air , Cheng2015glc , Jin2016glr ), financing of clinical trials has not yet done so, so the main guideline remains the charlatan TČM. the linguist is the magical medicine and cultural symbol.
Other anticancer fungi
In assessing anticancer fungi, it is advisable to avoid extremes. Both the oncologist and the patient must not wait for a miracle. When a doctor with a malignancy develops, it is clear that his immune system has already missed his best chance. Mild, even strong, immune enhancement is usually not enough to cure. On the other hand, there is a misconception that anti-cancerous fungi are ineffective and do not deserve their attributes. Such a view does not stand in the light of available scientific studies ( Popovic2013mcu ). The list of species I mention is not complete or enclosed:
- Outkovka pestrá
- Outfit camper
- Chinese caterpillars
- Rectangle oblique - chaga (an overview of its anticancer effects is Song2013pua )
- Choroš wil
The group of anticancer fungi is not distinct because even conventional edible sponges nonspecifically increase anti-cancer immunity ( Patel2012rdm , Feeney2014mhs ). Specifically, it is, for example, oyster mushroom , edible bumblebee ( Lentinus edodes , šísat), Grifola frondosa , maitake, Hericium erinaceus , and common mushrooms ( Agaricus bisporus , A. blazei ). Asian mushrooms (šítake, maitake) are not more effective than our non-specific anti-cancer effects are common fungal substances: β-glucans ( Temizoz2016vap ), ergosterol ( Li2015epf ) and fiber. Information that our soakbib, resp. his parasite does not catch golden-throat are cancer-producing is untrue .
Other adaptogens for the prevention and supportive treatment of cancer
Cancer is a popular topic in science. Paradoxically, precisely because of the over-popularity of the topic, it is difficult to identify truly effective anti-cancer adaptogens. To illustrate, CancerHSP ( Tao2015cah ) herbicide database contains more than 2400 potentially anticancer plants, The Duke and the TCMSP ( TC20P ) herbalist database ( Ru2014tds ) adds hundreds of herbs to it, but it is unclear which of them performs heavily and only weakly. Weak and non-specific anticancer effects are very common in herbs and fungi, but unfortunately, it is not enough to meet the hope of oncology patients. Certain anticancer effects have been found in almost all popular adaptogens, of which I offer more or less random choices:
- In the genus Panax, there are types of American ginseng , ginseng notoginseng , etc., similar to P. ginseng and analogous anticancer effects (see Wang2015cap , Wang2016pap , Wang2008prg , He2012aap ).
- Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) from Chinese goji fruit juice promote the growth of spleen cells ( Peng2001sci , Gan2004iaa ) and T lymphocytes ( Chen2008atl , Gan2003ppc ), immune regeneration after cytostatic treatment ( Gong2005tel ) and directly effect against liver , prostate, breast ( Chao2006hwe , Liu2000eia , Li2009lbi ).
- Momordika bitter (bitter cucumber) has, in addition to its potential for anti-diabetes and obesity, a preventative potential for cancer, see the Raina2016pbm , Dandawate2016bmp, and Nerurkar2010bma reviews .
- There are hundreds of studies trying to scientifically clarify the experience of the TCM with the Baikal Shishak . Here are just a couple to illustrate: For example, bajcalin caused apoptosis of liver cancer cells ( Yu2016bps ), prostate ( Chan2000iap ) and other tumors ( Luo2014sbe ). Likewise, vogonin acts by multiple cellular mechanisms that cause apoptosis, restricts tumor growth in tumors, and has synergistic effect with the fluorouracil ( Wu2016awe ) cytotoxic agent. In Taiwanese TC, the bearded beetle ( Lai2012ppc , Yeh2014hdc , Chao2014ppc ) is also very commonly prescribed for cancer.
- Anticorrosion activity in the liver was observed in vitro ( Huang2007maa , Huang2009czj ).
- Vitania snodárna has documented anti-tumor effects ( Dar2015pow ), for example due to its inhibitory effect on vascular growth ( Mohan2004wip ).
- The Chinese angel (angel angel) had an anticancer effect in vitro and in vivo ( Cheng2004aea , Tsai2005aea , Kan2008sae , etc.). His polysaccharides were active against three in vivo mouse models of cancer ( Shang2003esa ). China is the most commonly prescribed TCH herb against breast cancer ( Lai2012ppc ) in Taiwan, but its effect is unclear from a scientific point of view ( Chang2006mhe ).
- The anti- rabies effects of the sacred basil analyze the Baliga2013osh overview.
- In vivo ( Shimpo2014iel , Pan2013iag and others), anticonvulsants and polysaccharides from aloe vera have anticancer activity in vitro ( Xu2016rse , Luo2014caw , Chen2016ent , Chihara2015eae , Hussain2015avi , Yonehara2015ave ) and in vivo ( Shimpo2014iel , Pan2013iag and others), a good overview of the anticancer properties of aloe is Harlev2012apa , aloe-emodin anthraquinone .
According to Lai2012ppc, TCHM practice in Taiwan, in addition to ginseng and jelly, often uses the plants of Vladimiria souliei , cardamom , pinnate , kosinec , Forsythia suspensa, and cymica daty . According to the Radomskalesniewska2015apr review, the effect on the growth of blood vessels in stomach tumors is pink , purple , aloe, and plumbago zeylanica . Bocharova1994tpe also emphasizes the stairway . Safarzadeh2014hmi also contains anti- rabbit ginger , saffron , curcumin and xanthorrhizol from turmeric , resveratrol, kvercetin and genistein from legumes, bajkalein and other flavonoids from Baikal Shihak , Chasuble Shrike, Isatis tinctoria , Sophora flavescens, and red-eyed ( Tabebuia impetiginosa ).
Poisonous natural cytostatics
Adaptogens contrast with natural mitotic poisons from some poisonous plants. They kill both cancerous, as all the other dividing cells and in the treatment of cancer are commonly used. They are not adaptogens because they are badly damaged by the healthy organism. I mention them for the sake of completeness, they are all very dangerous natural poisons. Typically used are vinblastine and vincristine from Vinca minor , taxol (paclitaxel) from yew ( Taxus baccata ), Camptothecin camptothecin ( Camptotheca acuminata ), Podophyllum peltatum podophyllotoxin. This category includes probably also a very promising, poisonous triple wilford ( Tripterygium wilfordii ), slightly toxic mistletoe ( Viscum album ) with its proteoglycans (lectins) and other plants. Recently, it has also been reported that the fruits of the Australian tree Hylandia dockrillii of the rust family have strong cytostatic effects (see ). I do not know, however, if Hylandia is an adaptogen and I will not blame it for its effect ...
The specific types of cancer I will be more concerned with
- Leukemia (blood cancer)
- Lung cancer
- Stomach cancer
- Malignant melanoma