Cancer is the leading cause of death in a civilized world. The common feature of tumors is that the population of their own cells starts to grow uncontrollably at the expense of the organism. This multiplication can take place after a number of generations - then it is benign , such as maternal signs, adenomas, intestinal polyps, and small tumors within the body that we do not even know about. By contrast, malignant (malignant) tumor cells will never stop dividing and often have metastatic capability - spreading to distant parts of the body. Cancer in the broader sense refers to any malignant cancer. In the narrower sense, cancer is a malignant tumor originating from the epithelium of the skin or mucosa - carcinoma . Less common sarcoma is a malignant connective tissue tumor.
Healthy cells have many inhibitions against unlimited division. For example, contact inhibition: The cell stops dividing when there is no free space. Then Hayflick's limit is here: most cells can not grow all the time, but it's limited to a few dozen divisions. Most body ( somatic ) cells have the ability to cut permanently off - they are terminally differentiated . The ability to divide in the body retains only a small fraction of cells - stem cells . They are activated in the wound, but in some tissues they are still active. Therefore, tissues that grow and regenerate in adulthood - skin, mucosa, mammary gland, gonads ...
Compared to somatic cells, the tumor cells are undifferentiated. They remind stem cells - they are as young as they are, dividing and preparing to create some useful tissue, but they will never reach this end. Tumor cells behave almost normally at the beginning and retain their original function. For example, there are hormonal disorders in pituitary, adrenal and other endocrine tumors because tumor cells are still working on their original profession - hormone production. Tumor cells also, from the beginning, have a considerable desire to differentiate, that is, to actually create a tissue that they are preparing to make. Often, only a mild chemical stimulus is needed to make the tumor cell decide to grow and become a functional, terminally differentiated somatic cell ( Kawamata2006dts ).
During cancer, cancer cells lose their inhibitions and good behavior. They also learn to escape recognition by the immune system, lose apoptosis and the will to differentiate, and gradually adapt to the cytostatics the doctor is trying to heal. The development of cancer is a stochastic process of biological evolution taking place in the cancer cell population. To understand the phenomenon of malignant overthrow, it is important to remember that each malignant tumor:
- It originates from a single cell of a specific tissue.
- In its multiplication, evolutionary leaps stochastically lead to greater malignancy.
- Sooner or later he will confront the host's immune system.
These characteristics also show why cancer is so difficult to treat. Since the beginning, cancer cells are virtually no different from normal cells, and it is hard to invent a poison that selectively kills them without damaging the whole body. The ability of cancer cells to evolve in turn means that even if a physician, by means of a substance or treatment method, keeps the disease temporarily in check, the cancer cells will develop resistance over time and the given substance / method will cease to work. For relapse, it is enough to survive the survival of one single viable cancer cell.
Let us also point out that people are very well in terms of anti-cancer immunity. Man is naturally a long-lived animal, and he is better equipped to combat cancer than most vertebrates. Throughout our lives, our immune system detects and destroys dozens of tumors without bothering to inform us. While mice and rats are dying for cancer after 1 year, dogs and cats receive cancer after 5 years, the human immune system allows us to survive 5 decades of active life in relative safety. This is our advantage, but on the other hand it also means that when the doctor comes with a patient with already developed malignancy, his immune system has already failed in his position and missed his best chance of applying anti-cancer immunity. The risk of cancer is rising sharply in the age of the aging that occurs relatively rapidly over a decade of life. The predisposition to cancer in old age is increasing not only because we have in DNA the damage accumulated over a lifetime, but also because of total body dyscrasias and immunity. The stochastic nature of malignancy and the course of the disease is the reason why cancer only occurs in some people and progresses differently in different patients.
For the reasons already mentioned, prevention and treatment of cancer will always be a difficult problem. The medical advances in the treatment of cancer are mild, despite the costs of its research. For some cancers, the likelihood of cure has increased slightly (prostate tumors, seminoma, malignant melanoma, lung, colon , stomach and esophageal cancer), in others not (glioblastoma, hepatoma). Dangerous remains female females ( breast , ovary, and cervix). Cancer treatment has three standard components:
- Surgical treatment - resection of the tumor bearing (bearing).
- Cytostatic treatment - Destruction of cancer cells by selective poisons or radiation.
- Supportive care - regeneration of the body and strengthening of the immune system
In addition, biomolecule (immunotherapy), hormonal therapy, differentiation induction therapy, etc., are used, but the above 3 modalities remain crucial. Adaptogens and anticancer fungi, which I point out here, are mostly supportive treatments, but they also lack direct cytostatic effects. While conventional surgical and cytostatic therapies are detrimental to both the tumor and the body, adaptogens promote regeneration and restore the damaged immune system. Anti-cancerous sponges have direct antitumour effects both on stimulatory effects on cytotoxic immunity and on pro-apoptotic effects on cancer cells. The research of these drugs is extensive and in the following text I provide references.
Cancer cells from healthy cells are very difficult to distinguish. In fact, the only reliable distinctive feature is that cancer cells are divided unlimitedly. And it is this property that affects cytostatic treatment.
A cytostatic effect is generally any effect that damages or kills dividing cells, but is relatively harmless to resting, non-dividing cells. For example, this property has radiation. Ionizing radiation most damages the dividing cells and therefore radiotherapy is used to destroy tumors. An even more specific effect on the dividing cells has chemical cytostatics - mitotic poisons used in chemotherapy. It is, for example, 5-fluorouracil, which blocks the synthesis of thymidine - one of four DNA stones, which has no other use in the cell. Many of the cytostatics used are of natural origin: Vinca alkaloids (vinblastine, vincristine), yew taxanes, podophyllotoxin, camptothecin, bacterial streptomycin,
Unfortunately, many other cells are separated from the cancer cells, and they are damaged in the same way as the tumor in the cytostatic treatment. These are epithelial cells of the skin, mucous membranes, hair root growth zones, nail beds, and stem cell stem cells from which red and white cells emerge. Cytostatic treatment is a terrifying experience in which sufferers suffer from tremendous fatigue, nausea, anorexia and loss of fertility. Hair looks and lines appear on the nails (Beau line). One of the worst consequences is a severe damage to the immune system by destroying white blood cells.
Targeted cancer therapy
Since the very beginning of cytostatic treatment, doctors have tried to limit this to cancer cells only. For radiotherapy, for example, a tumor bearing is targeted, while the rest of the body receives a relatively small dose. Chemotherapy has been targeting perfused organs since the 1950s. These methods fail in large metastases. In these cases, so-called biological treatment (bio-therapy) now exists, more correctly immunological treatment.
Cure for cancer is nothing new. There has long been an effort to create anticancer vaccines. The main problem is that the patient's own immune system is usually heavily damaged by cytostatic therapy. In today's immunotherapy, therefore, anti-cancer cells are artificially engineered and administered intragain to the patient. This is a good commercial strategy, not a miraculous method. The physician actually imitates the immune system of the patient and faces a challenge in which the patient's natural immunity has failed once.
Very promising is the combination of antibodies with α-radioisotopes, which then locally irradiate small tumorous deposits (targeted alpha therapy). Targeted alpha therapy was devoted, for example, to No. 3 of Current Radiopharmaceuticals from September 2008 , from specific publications such as Tolmachev2007rth (lutetium 177 + HER2 anti -breast cancer antibodies) and Liepe2009a2a (Alpharadin, Prostate Cancer Radiation 223). Research activity in this field is progressing intensively, see Gudkov2016trt for a review.
Supportive treatment of cancer
Supportive treatment is not secondary to cancer. While other diseases can rely on natural regeneration capacity, cytostatic cancer therapy will immune patients' immunity and regenerative capacity thoroughly. In the body, new and new stem cells are recruited during chemotherapy, attempting to regenerate and being destroyed. The patient will become physiologically aged for several years in a few months. It also suffers from the immune system in which maternal hematopoietic stem cells are destroyed in the bone marrow.
Ginseng Adaptogens protect against radiation and chemical damage and help with regeneration. These effects are scientifically documented, but it is important to ask whether cancer cells can be protected by analogy. According to experts it is not - specific adaptogens not only protect cancer cells, they activate anti-cancer immunity and directly cause apoptosis of cancer cells. The direct effect against cancer cells is noticeable in anti-cancerous fungi - fungal adaptogens, the typical representative of which is glossy gloss. Again, the question is whether scientists examining adaptogens suffer from obliquity over their subject. This question exists and is being continuously addressed not only in adaptogens but also in any other sector of science. The miracle cure for cancer does not exist and is not even adapted to it. And there are restrictions that prevent scientists from finding a reliable cure for cancer.
Genus Genuine is an extraordinary adaptogen suitable for cancer
Ginseng research in cancer treatment focuses on four types of effects: (1) preventive, (2) protective and regenerative radiation and chemotherapy, (3) immunomodulatory and (4) direct antitumour, further subdivided into 3 subcategories.
1. Preventive effects : In terms of prevention of ginseng use, it correlates negatively with the incidence of cancer ( Shin2000cpp ) and can be attributed to specific panaxosides ( Shibata2001ccp , Wang2008icp , Choi2013bbc ). A randomized clinical trial confirming this phenomenon is Yun2010npe . The anti-inflammatory effect of ginseng ( Hofseth2007ict ) may also include cancer risk factors.
2. Protective and regenerative effects : The adaptogenic effect of ginseng against radiation damage is fully utilized in the treatment of cancer. Ginseng protects cells against irradiation, promotes regeneration of tissues and mainly the immune system ( Yonezawa1976rri , Takeda1981rri , Yonezawa1981rri , Takeda1982rri , Yonezawa1985rri ). According to clinical trials, ginseng improves the quality of life of cancer patients and limits the adverse effects of chemotherapy ( Kim2006esg , Yennurajalingam2015hag ).
3. Immunomodulatory effects : According to Takei2008dcp , the ginseng has an immunomodulatory effect acting on the cytotoxic response. It increases the activity of NK cells ( Yun1993iat , Jang2015pnk , Takeda2015ink ) and macrophages ( Wang2010ita ) and thus contributes to anti-cancer immunity.
4. Direct antitumor effects : Panaxoside has been shown to have direct anti-tumor effects by Dr. Lars Christensen is divided into three groups: (1) cytostatic effect, (2) reduction of malignancy, and (3) restriction of vascular growth in tumors ( Christensen2009gcb ). Recent reviews of the antitumor effects of ginseng are Wong2015rag and Wang2016rgc . The cytostatic effect is studied both in vitro on the cell lines and in vivo in animals. Numerous studies can not all be quoted, I choose: According to Wong2010age , a ginseng extract was performed on a mouse model against pulmonary carcinoma. The ginseng also performed against human gastric carcinoma cells ( Hwang2015efg ), human gallbladder cancer ( Wu2015ers ), and human lymphoblastic leukemia ( Xia2016iap ) cells. Ginseng metabolite compound K acts against hepatoma cells ( Song2010imc ), ginsenoside F2 against glioblastoma in the rat model ( Shin2012aeg ), gssd. Rg 3 against human myeloma cells ( Li2016imm ) and ginseng acidic polysaccharides improved the results of cytostatic melanoma treatment in the mouse model ( Shin2004eae ). Gssd. Rg 3 and Compound K inhibit angiogenesis in lung, stomach and ovarian tumors ( Wang2015gmc ). Compound K acts by inhibition of p38 MAP kinase ( Jeong2010cib ) and sphingosine kinase 1 regulation ( Shin2014gci ). A slightly less inhibitory effect on angiogenesis has gssd. Rb 1 ( Papapetropoulos2007gor , Wang2015gmc ). Other panaxosides (eg, gssd, Rg 1 ) have opposite effects on vascular growth ( Sengupta2004may ).
Although I advocate adaptogens, I must admit that, despite all the research, the utility and irreplaceability of ginseng in cancer is not scientifically proven. It is not a question of whether or not herbal treatment of cancers - the recognized cytostatics are, for example, poisons of plant origin (vinblastine, taxol, podophyllotoxin etc., see previous sections). The question is, rather, to what extent model adapters like ginseng and aloe overshadow popularity by less well-known adaptogens suitable for cancer. So: Although I am presenting a lot of scientific resources, I encourage you to try ginseng not for scientific reasons, but for some others, for example, from respect for the non-scientific TCM . In developed countries using TCM (typically Taiwan), ginseng is one of the most common components of prescriptions prescribed by the TCM of patients with cancer ( Lai2012ppc ).
Glossy Glossy is a "miracle" sponge against cancer
Of course, the title is not meant to be serious. Gloss gloss is an adaptogen containing a large amount of 100% non-triterpenoid saponins - ganoderic acid, ganoderenic acid, luciformdehyde, ganoderiol, and others (see Paterson2006gtf ). A total of 315 triterpenoids in the genus Ganoderma describe an overview of Xia2014crs , which is more than 182 triterpenoids described in the genus Panax ( Christensen2009gcb ). Lesklokorka also typically contains fungal β-glucans, polysaccharides and proteoglycans. Polysaccharides and other substances (e.g., polypeptides) are also considered to be carriers of the anti-rabies effects of glans. Glossy Glossy has no side effects ( Wachtelgalor2004gll , Kwok2005prd ).
Lesklokorka supports cytotoxic immune response ( Radwan2011air ). Its extract and pure β-glucan (fucogalactan) increase IL-23 outflow from dendritic cells and induce Th17 T lymphocyte differentiation ( Yoshida2012pit ). Gloss polysaccharides accelerate proliferation of bone marrow macrophages and increase the production of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12β35, IL-12β40, IL-18, TNFα, IL-1β and IL-12 ( Ji2011ibm ). Ganoderma formosanum activates an in vivo anticancer immune response in cancer-affected mice ( Wang2014aa ).
Lesklokorka acts against in vitro colon cancer cell lines ( Thyagarajan2010tfg , Jedinak2011glt , Hong2004egl ) and limits gastric cancer cell malignancies ( Jang2011aae ). The direct cytotoxic effects of specific glomerular triterpenoids comment on Xia2014crs . According to Min2000tfs ganoderic acids c, d, e, z, n, and in vitro act against sarcoma and lung carcinoma cells. Ganoderic acid inhibits the growth of leukemia cells (HL-60) and ganoderliol E growth of breast cancer cells (MCF-7). According to Wang2010nga ganoderic Mf, Mk and S kill lung cancer cells (95-D) and cervix (HeLa) at concentrations of 15-40μM. Ganoderic acid E and lucid acids N and A act against hepatoma and leukemia cell lines ( Wu2001cgl ), ganodermic acid Ja against hepatoma cells ( Li2005gal ). Lucialdehyde B and C, ganodermanolol and ganodermanondiol act against lung cancer cells, breast cancer and sarcoma ( Gao2002nta ), luciadiol and ganoderiol F against HeLa cervical carcinoma cells ( Cheng2010ctf ), two other specific leukemia cell leukemias, cervical carcinoma, hepatoma And gastric cancer ( Guan2008clt ). According to Ma2012ltf , both ganoderic acids A and C 1 and luciformdehydes D and E, all at concentrations ~ 20μg / ml, are also anticancer.
G. lucidum was anticancer in vivo in transplanted liver cancer ( Chen2010pg1 ) and other tumors ( Trajkovic2009apg , Nonaka2006aaa ). G. lucidum had an in vivo immunostimulatory and anti- rabbing effect ( Gao2005aau , Pang2007pnp ) and preceded the formation and metastasis of lung cancer in mice exposed to cyclophosphamide carcinogen ( Nonaka2008eaf ). G. atrum was anticancer agent in the mouse model ( Zhang2014pfg ). Ganoderic acid T reduces lung carcinoma cell malignancy in vivo ( Chen2010gai ).
In terms of clinical trials, Gao2003egg tested the effect of polysaccharides of glans in 30 advanced cancer patients and found an increase in CD56 + cell count and NK cell activity. Chen2006mir found an increase in CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD56 + lymphocytes in 41 patients with advanced colon cancer using glans. Sun2014pal in turn has found improvement in immune parameters in lung cancer patients using glossary. The Oka2010wef study in 96 patients (+ 102 controls) found that glossopause used for 12 months prevents the development of colorectal adenomas, neoplasms of which can develop colon and rectal cancer . When using glossy cork , cases of complete cure are known, Suprasert2014ccg reports on 5 of these patients.
Even more so than ginseng in glossy ice , regardless of the number of enthusiastic scientists recommending this sponge to the attention of doctors ( Sliva2003glr , Radwan2011air , Cheng2015glc , Jin2016glr ), the financing of clinical trials has not been successful for her yet, so the main guide remains the scarlet TČM. The linguist is the magical medicine and cultural symbol.
Other anticancer fungi
In assessing anticancer fungi, it is advisable to avoid extremes. Both the oncologist and the patient must not wait for a miracle. When the patient comes with a malignancy, it is clear that his immune system has already missed his best chance. Mild, even strong, immune enhancement is usually not enough to cure. On the other hand, there is a misconception that anti-cancerous fungi are ineffective and do not deserve their attributes. Such an opinion in the light of the available scientific studies will not stand ( Popovic2013mcu ). The list of species I mention is not complete or enclosed:
- Outcovka pestrá
- Outfit camper
- Chinese caterpillars
- Rectangle oblique - jag (an overview of its anticancer effects is Song2013pua )
- Choroš wil
The group of anticancer fungi is not distinct because even conventional edible sponges nonspecifically increase anti-cancer immunity ( Patel2012rdm , Feeney2014mhs ). Specifically, it is, for example, oyster mushroom , Lentinus edodes , šípate, Griffola frondosa , maitake, Hericium erinaceus , but also common mushrooms ( Agaricus bisporus , A. blazei ), see Xu2012cpe , Martin2010ccs . Asian mushrooms (šípát, maitake) are not more effective than our non-specific anti-cancer effects are common fungal substances: β-glucans ( Temizoz2016vap ), ergosterol ( Li2015epf ) and fiber. Information that our soakbib, resp. His parasite does not catch the golden-throat are cancer-producing is untrue .
Other adaptogens for the prevention and supportive treatment of cancer
Cancer is a popular topic in science. Paradoxically, because of the overly popularity of the topic, it is difficult to identify truly effective anti-cancer adaptogenes. For illustration, CancerHSP ( Tao2015cah ) herbal database contains more than 2,400 potentially anticancer plants, The Duke and the TCMSP ( TC20P ) TCMSP ( Ru2014tds ) database adds hundreds of herbs to it, but it is unclear which of them performs heavily and only weakly. Weak and non-specific anticancer effects are very common in herbs and fungi, but unfortunately, it is not enough to meet the hope of oncology patients. Certain anticancer effects have been found in almost all popular adaptogens, of which I offer more or less random choices:
- In the genus Panax, there are some American ginseng , ginseng notoginseng , etc., similar to P. ginseng and analogous anti-cancer effects (see Wang2015cap , Wang2016pap , Wang2008prg , He2012aap ).
- Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) from Chinese goji fruit juice promote the growth of spleen cells ( Peng2001sci , Gan2004iaa ) and T lymphocytes ( Chen2008atl , Gan2003ppc ), immune regeneration after cytostatic treatment ( Gong2005tel ) and directly effect on liver , prostate, Breast ( Chao2006hwe , Liu2000eia , Li2009lbi ).
- Momordika bitter (bitter cucumber) has, in addition to its known potential for diabetes and obesity, a preventative potential for cancer, see the Raina2016pbm , Dandawate2016bmp and Nerurkar2010bma reviews .
- There are hundreds of studies trying to scientifically clarify the experience of the TCM with the Baikal Shishak . Here are just a couple to illustrate: For example, bajcalin caused apoptosis of liver cancer cells ( Yu2016bps ), prostate ( Chan2000iap ) and other tumors ( Luo2014sbe ). Similarly, vogonin acts by several cellular mechanisms causing apoptosis, limiting tumor growth in the tumors, and having a synergistic effect with the fluorouracil cytostatic ( Wu2016awe ). In Taiwanese TKM, the bearded beetle ( Lai2012ppc , Yeh2014hdc , Chao2014ppc ) is also very often prescribed specifically for cancer.
- Anticancer activity in the liver was observed in vitro in vitro ( Huang2007maa , Huang2009czj ).
- Vitania snodarna has documented anti-tumor effects ( Dar2015pow ), for example, thanks to its inhibitory effect on vascular growth ( Mohan2004wip ).
- Chinese angel had an anticancer effect in vitro and in vivo ( Cheng2004aea , Tsai2005aea , Kan2008sae , etc.). Its polysaccharides have been active against three in vivo mouse models of cancer ( Shang2003esa ). The Chinese tongue is most commonly prescribed by Taiwan 's breast cancer herbalist ( Lai2012ppc ) in Taiwan, but its effect is unclear from a scientific point of view ( Chang2006mhe ).
- The anti- rabies effects of the Sacred Basil analyze the Baliga2013osh overview.
- Anthoquinones and polysaccharides from aloe vera have an anticancer effect in vitro ( Xu2016rse , Luo2014caw , Chen2016ent , Chihara2015eae , Hussain2015avi , Yonehara2015ave ) and in vivo ( Shimpo2014iel , Pan2013iag and others), a good overview of the anticancer properties of aloe is Harlev2012apa , aloe-emodin anthraquinone is reviewed in Chen2014pae .
According to Lai2012ppc, TCHM practice in Taiwan, in addition to ginseng and jelly, often uses the plants of Vladimiria souliei , Cardamomus genus , Trinity pinelus , Fossil cinnamon , Forsythia suspension , and Data cicicum . According to the Radomskalesniewska2015apr review, the effect on the growth of blood vessels in stomach tumors is pink , purple , aloe, and Plumbago zeylanica . Bocharova1994tpe also emphasizes the trench . Safarzadeh2014hmi also contains anti- ragweed ginger , saffron , curcumin and xanthorrhizol from turmeric , resveratrol, kvercetin and genistein from legumes, bajkalein and other flavonoids from the Baikal Shihashi , the Saphora flavescens , Isatis tinctoria , And Lute Red ( Tabebuia impetiginosa ).
Poisonous natural cytostatics
Adaptogens contrast with natural mitotic poisons from some poisonous plants. They kill both cancerous, as all the other dividing cells and in the treatment of cancer are commonly used. They are not adaptogens because they are badly damaged by the healthy organism. I mention them for the sake of completeness, they are all very dangerous natural poisons. Typically used are vinblastine and vincristine from minor ( Vinca minor ), taxol (paclitaxel) from yew ( Taxus baccata ), Camptothecin camptothecin ( Camptotheca acuminata ), Podophyllum peltatum podophyllotoxin. This category includes probably also a very promising, poisonous triple wilford ( Tripterygium wilfordii ), slightly poisonous mistletoe ( Viscum album ) with its proteoglycans (lectins) and other plants. Recently, it has also been reported that the fruits of the Australian tree Hylandia dockrillii of the rust family have strong cytostatic effects (see ). I do not know, however, if Hylandia is an adaptogen and I will not blame it for its effect ...
The specific types of cancer I will be more concerned with
- Leukemia (blood cancer)
- Lung cancer
- Stomach cancer
- Malignant melanoma