It is a damaran, protopanaxatriol panaxoside:
R1 = H
R 2 = Glc 2-1 Rha
R3 = H
R 4 = Glc
- It causes an endothelial dependent relaxation of an in vitro rat aortic ring preparation ( Kang1995gpg ).
- It regulates scopolamine disturbed learning in rats ( Yamaguchi1996egi ).
- Re and Rg1 strongly suppress the production of TNF-α and NO microglia-activated lipopolysaccharides ( Wu2007deg ).
- According to Zhang2006gif , Re in vitro improved the motility of normal human sperm as well as sperm with reduced motility, probably by activation of undetermined endogenous NO synthase.
- According to Zhang2007grp , Re in vitro facilitated the capability of human sperm by activating an undetermined endogenous NO synthase.
- Protects myocardial cells against oxidative damage ( Xie2006aeg ).
- At a concentration of about 100 μM, it significantly increased the proliferation of T H (CD4 +) and B lymphocyte-stimulated mitogens but restricted the proliferation of IL-2 stimulated T C (CD8 +) lymphocytes with an IC50 of 57.5 μM ( Cho2002gfp ).
- Most of all panaxosides improved immune cell regeneration, and had a high ability to protect against radiation apoptosis ( Lee2006ivr ).
- It acts on the androgen receptor, estrogen receptor α and progesterone receptor, and activates myocardium eNOS ( Furukawa2006grm ) after a non-genetic pathway.
- His cardiovascular effects are devoted to Peng2012grp , which also shows its positive effect on angiogenesis.