ginsenoside 20 ( S ) -Rh1
It is a damaran, protopanaxatriol panaxoside:
R1 = H
R2 = Glc
R3 = H
R 4 = H
- According to Park1996gri they have gssd. Rh 1 and Rh 2 ability to reduce nitric oxide production in macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharides (mouse, abdominal cavity macrophages).
- According to Park2004grp, it has gssd. Rh 1 anti-allergic effect - blocked histamine uptake from rat abdominal mast cells and IgE antibodies caused by a skin allergic reaction in mice, more than a common cianoglycate disodium (cromoglycate). In addition, it inhibited inducible NO synthase (iNOS, gene NOS2), cycloxygenase 2 (COX-2, PTGS2 gene) and their transcription factor NF-κB.
- Yu2005pgd says that gssd. 20 ( S ) Rh 1 , as well as its 20 ( R ) epimer, increase the binding of NF-κB transcription factor to DNA in the culture of mouse splenocytes. They also increase the production of T-bet transcription factor and type 1 cytokines controlled by IFN-γ. The highest effect on IFN-γ was at concentrations of 5 and 10 μM (+ 100%), at higher concentrations the effect was again reduced (at 50 μM only + 50%).
- It acts on the estrogen receptor in the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell culture. ( Lee2003gcg )