Intoxication, hangover, alcoholism
Alcohol and other intoxication have two aspects: the chemical burden on the body (mainly the brain and liver, often the kidneys) and addiction when it comes to addictive substances. The neuroprotective effects of adaptogens are used to protect against intoxication. In addition, some adaptogens have a specific effect of blocking the drug's dopamine signaling effect on the nucleus accumbens , which is the drug addiction principle .
Effects of adaptogens on intoxication of the organism
The list of classical adaptogens contains dozens of plants and many of them have parallel neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects that form the core of ginseng's modeling adaptogenicity against intoxication. Other adaptogens than ginseng have unfortunately not been presented in this context, so for the time being, I am more or less restricted to ginseng, which is considered adaptive to one. Otherwise, similar neuroprotective effects are, for example, pink rosaries and other adaptogens.
Protection of neurons and cognitive functions
The effect of adaptogens on memory is usually investigated in relation to effects on central acetylcholine pathways . The ginseng protected memory on the model of cholinergic distraction by learning with scopolamine ( Nitta1995pge , Sloley1999age ). According to Alhazmi2013peg , the protective effects of ginseng on memory are the same as for mementin (a standard palliative drug for Alzheimer's disease ). Effective panaxoside appears to be ginsenoside Rb1 , which increases the excretion of acetylcholine from the hippocampus ( Benishin1991egr ). This is in part contradictory to the findings of the Yamaguchi1995egi and Yamaguchi1996egi studies, according to which memory protects gssd. Rg 1 and gssd. Re , but not gssd. Rb 1 , R d , F 2 , R f , Rh 1 or 20-O-Glu-PPD .
Protection against hangover
Ginseng calms the irritation of the microglie responsible for the hangover. It is best to take ginseng before or along with alcohol consumption. The effect on day use is smaller. The ginseng also protects against the hiccups memory center neuron ( Kim2007neg ).
Against the addiction itself
It is short-lived: no miracles can be expected. Anyone who has developed a strong drug addiction will once again be tempted at every opportunity. Adaptogens with appropriate dopaminergic effects help to make abstinence less stressful. This statement supports many publications that have not yet dispelled my personal doubts about this particular effect of ginseng and classical adaptogens.
- Kim1995bbg (rat), Tokuyama1996ege , Kim1999ibg (mouse) - Effect of total saponin extract of ginseng or individual panaxosides against dopaminergic sensitization due to cocaine addiction.
- Kim1995ibg (mouse) - normalizing effect on neural signaling in morphinism.
- Shim2000meg (rat) - normalizing effects on nerve signaling and changes in gene expression of neurons after nicotine administration.
- Takahashi1998ppe , Kim2005pap - normalizing the action of ginseng on the CNS and acting against opioid, cocaine and amphetamine dependence.
- Oh1997gts - Ginseng total saponin inhibits dopamine depletion in c. Striatum after methamphetamine.
- Blum2007mcc - Rhodiola rosea affects dopamine signaling and has potential against drug addiction (alcoholism, etc.) This study identifies the dopaminergic system (specifically the inhibition of catechol-O-methyltransferase) as a potential mechanism of the general effect of a stallard against drug addiction (eg alcoholism ). By acting on the central serotonin stomach system, it reduced the symptoms of experimental (rat) nicotine withdrawal syndrome ( Mannucci2012sir ).