What are Steroid Receptors?
The effect of panaxosides on steroid receptors and pathways
Ginseng saponins are steroids and it is not surprising that they affect the steroid receptors of mammalian cells (estrogenic, anogenic, glucocorticoid receptor, etc.). However, there is no coherent conclusion. Panaxosides, by acting on the steroid receptors, tend to produce effects that are not related to the consciousness of humans - neuroprotective, cardiovascular, and the like. The balance of sex hormones generally does not interfere with ginseng. Perhaps its erection effect is not the result of some hormonal action, but the activation of nitric oxide synthesis in the blood vessels . The following examples of specific interactions are not exhaustive; the panaxoside publications on this topic are about ten times more.
- Ginsenoside Rg 1 , but not its aglycon, is a potent phytoestrogen. However, gssd. Rg1 does not directly affect the estrogen receptor. ( Chan2002eag )
- Ginsenoside Rg 1 acts on estrogen receptors and pathways and affects the immune system . ( Lau2008gre , Chan2002eag , Lu2008grp )
- Ginsenoside Rb1 acts on the estrogen receptor and thus protects neurons from apoptosis. ( Hashimoto2012grp )
- Ginsenoside Rb 1 by acting on the β estrogen receptor inhibits angiogenesis . ( Leung2007gri )
- Ginsenoside Rh 1 acts on the estrogen receptor. ( Lee2003gcg )
- Ginsenoside Re acts on the androgen receptor, the estrogen receptor α and the progesterone receptor. As a result, it facilitates the activation of endothelial NO synthase .
- Ginsenoside Rb1 acts on the androgen receptor and activates vascular NO synthase. ( Yu2007spn )
- Ginsenoside Rg 3 acts on the androgen receptor and inhibits the division of prostate tumor cells in vitro . ( Liu2000aeg )
The concept of adaptogen is theoretically defined in relation to stress . Practically, in the ginseng modelogene adaptogen, it appears that its content acts directly on the glucocorticoid receptor. The main glucocorticoid in humans is the stress hormone cortisol.
- Ginsenoside Rg1 acts on the glucocorticoid receptor. ( Kang1994gri , Cheung2011gia )
- Ginsenoside Re acts on the glucocorticoid receptor in endothelial cells and phosphorylation of endothelial NO synthase facilitates the production of nitric oxide. ( Leung2007neg )