Adaptogens do not have and must not have the main effect. From the definition, no physiological parameter in plus or minus the direction may be affected. So how can they work? And do they work at all? How can they have so many beneficial effects when regular drugs usually have only one? To these and similar doubts here I answer:
Yes, they work. Enough to get paid to buy or search in the forest (which is more expensive). But it is not a miracle. Their effect is mild, often due to a change in gene expression, thus slow and without dramatic accompanying phenomena. However, their active substances can be extracted, crystallized and measured. The ginseng are panaxosides, the salidroside stapler, the schizandrin schizander, the baykaline, the vitania vitaferin, the bakopy bacchus, etc.
How can adaptogens function when they do not change physiological parameters?
How can they be an effective pharmacist, which by definition can not unilaterally change any physiological parameter in a healthy organism? The answer is easy: Adaptive. Often, the explanation of the adaptive effect is the presence of substances (or the only substance) with opposing effects. It can be said that the presence of opposing, mutually balancing effects is typical of adaptogens . The healthy ones will not show up. However, once the body is exposed to stress, the balance will be disturbed and the adaptogen will start to return to health. It is best to illustrate the example of a model adaptogen ginseng.
Contraceptive effects of ginseng
- NO synthase activity. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signal molecule that produces enzymes called NO synthase. Different types of NO synthases cause ginseng to reverse. It blocks NO synthase 2 (NOS2), thus inhibiting inflammation ( Park1996gri , Park2003aag , Oh2004sog , Oh2004sog , Bae2006grr ), but it strengthens NO synthase 3 (NOS3), thus enlarging blood vessels and also improves erection .
- Blood pressure. By effecting the aforementioned NOS3, ginseng expands blood vessels as needed, without brightening the NO concentration. It only enhances feedback that reduces elevated blood pressure. At low blood pressure, therefore, its effect is not hypotensive.
- Type of immune response. There are two mutually competing types of immune responses among which the immune system has to find a balance at every infectious burden: Type 1 (cytotoxic response) is against cancer and virus type 2 (antibody response) mainly against bacteria. Ginsenoside Rh 1 acts in the Type 1 response ( Yu2005pgd ), whereas ginsenosides F1 and Rg1 amplify competitive type 2 antibiotic immunity ( Lee2004gre, Yu2005pgd ). The overall effect of ginseng sounds in favor of anti-cancer and anti-viral immunity ( Christensen2009gcb ).
- Capillary growth. Some ginseng saponins accelerate capillary growth, others slow down. Specifically, ginsenoside Rg1 and S epimer of ginsenoside Rg3 accelerate vascular growth by acting on the glucocorticoid receptor ( Cheung2011gia , Sengupta2004may , Kwok2012sg2 ), while ginsenoside ginsenoside Rb1 and compound K slow capillary growth ( Sengupta2004may ).
- Psychostimulatory effects. Ginsenoside Rb 1 reduces aggression (in mice), ginsenoside Rg 1 slightly increases it, overall ginseng is slightly calming ( Yoshimura1988ace ).
- Stress level. Ginseng stabilizes stress , more precisely the level of stress hormone cortisol ( Kim2003egs and others)
Adaptogens also create illusion of healing in many seemingly unrelated illnesses by acting on the common cause of their origin, which connects them. For example, in the ginseng modelogene, its anti-inflammatory effect has an impact on the liver, brain, stroke prevention and treatment (like other anti-inflammatory drugs - aspirin) and all pain conditions. The analgesic effect generally creates an illusion, as if the herb or cure has treated many diseases. The effect of ginseng against inflammation also has an impact on joint pain and a large number of autoimmune diseases, all due to effects on one single physiological system.
Why adaptogens work?
More specifically, what are the reasons for plants to develop intelligent drugs for the benefit of animals? It turns out that these reasons exist. The ginseng is living in the conditions of absolute shine and energy saving. For the first growing season, only one leaf is produced. In the second growing season, he leaves only two leaves. When we break them, new ones will not grow in that year. And these leaves perform photosynthesis under the dense arch of the taiga and the forests of the Far East. It is clear that when she finally puts flowers and fruits in the third year, she does not have any sugar berries. And so uses healing substances as a lure. The way of spreading that ginseng uses in nature is zeochori - spreading the animals. Forest plants have other options - for example, epizooochori, in which the seeds attach the hooks to the coat of the game. But ginseng chose a luxurious way because it is so curative that he does not have to rely on accidentally passing animals. Animals and birds are far from looking for it.
- Why is ginseng heavily healing?
- To be attractive for animals that consume its berries.
- Why is an adaptogen?
- If it was not, it would be worse for the forest market.
- Why not give sugar to your berries?
- He can not afford it. It grows in the conditions of energy emergency - on the herbaceous floor of a high forest.
- The synthesis of panaxoside molecules is also expensive.
- An attractive dose of the active substance requires far less energy than the sugar that plucks the fruits of other plants.
In other words, what ginseng is lacking in the quantity of energy, catches the quality of the drugs it offers. Grubs of ginseng from the undergrowth and brilliant medical reds are far from being the zoochorist. The scourge came to him only after a certain monkey called Homo sapiens appeared in the tabernacle, who was not satisfied with what was offered to her, and instead she began to dig up the root where ginseng her medicinal substances stored. Wild-growing ginseng is now extinguished due to this monkey in the larger part of the original site.
In a similar situation, there are many other adaptogens
While other extreme cases like ginseng do not know, all the berries that are not sweet can be suspected of being healing. Such is, for example, the Chinese clan . This forest creeper also has no energy to waste, climbs the sun through the trees and its fruits are sour (Russian "limonnik"). But they are full of schisandrin and vitamins. Though less luxuriant than ginseng, it is called in Chinese by "berry of five flavors" due to the richness of medicinal substances. In the pharmacy fouls the scallops , mochyne , vitania , blueberry , arrow , truffle ... The plant is richer in energy, the more common the fabric usually offers. The arrow is mainly vitamin C and desert crops (dates, figs, carobs ...) mainly sugar.
- Another objection:
- What about forest herbs poisoning? Their berries are often jaded with medical paints (lily of the valley, lime tree ...) or presented as if they were called "eat me, I'm curative" (a four-leaf eyelid), yet they are violent poisonous.
- They have their customers. For some birds the toxicity of their saponins is more than 100 times lower than for mammals. For a man who is not even interested at all. Intelligence and pisces unacquainted animals show them much better. Otherwise, it is an excellent objection, because it also leads to another evolutionary reason for the existence of adapogenes - the one that hangs in us.
The reasons behind us
If we believed in magic and did not know the term adaptogen, we would reformulate the title of this article to: Why are some plants miraculous? More precisely, why is there so many miraculous herbs among natural remedies that have a lot of positive effects and not one negative? So, let's ask: Why is a man a miraculous monkey?
- Why can we look forward to the antioxidant and antidepressant effects of tea, coffee and cocoa, while dogs and cats would have kidney disease?
- Because we come from tropics, where our genes, in addition to cleverness and bouncing from branch to branch, have also taught good relationships with phytocomplexes of the genus of mallow, mulberry, aralcovite, arachnid, rosette, holly, myrtle, laurel, pepper, ginger, crocodile, saxophile, kleiche, mummy, spiny, spiny, cacophilous, gruffy, lizard-like and others, which are less botanical.
This knowledge is physically represented in our genes that allow us to consume most of the plants without harm, including so-called poisonous (aubergine, ivy, squirrel, pepper, bird's eye ...) It is true that bird's eye, wonderful lily of the valley healing berries of the warrior's eye are much more tolerant of birds than we do, but humans, unlike canaries and aurals, do not relive the persein contained in super-curative avocados. (To prevent some tropical starvars from clinging to a starter for a consumer to whom it is intended.) This evolutionary knowledge is manifested on the molecular level by hundreds of BCRP, Pgp, MRP, UGT, and others. The functioning of natural adaptogens is therefore built on humans for millions of years of our coevolution with plants.