PPAR receptors are regulators of gene expression plays a key role in glucose and lipid metabolism. In connection with adaptogens they are interesting because they play a role in the development of civilization diseases against which operates adaptogens ( diabetes , obesity , atherosclerosis , metabolic syndrome, and others). Abbreviation means PPAR peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors). For PPAR receptors are distinguished three subtypes encoded by three different genes: PPARα, PPARβ and PPAR gamma.
Adaptogens acting on PPAR receptors
Despite the difficult title PPAR receptors are commonplace, nevýjimečné, abundant in all cells. Take the mundane tasks of regulating sugar and fat metabolism. Affects the efficacy of insulin, and their agonists (thiazolidinediones) used against diabetes. PPAR receptors are also the site of action of certain active substances adaptogens and medicinal plants.
The effect of ginseng on PPAR receptors scientists devote attention from the very beginning of the 21st century ( Chung2001cbw , Yoon2003ppr ). Specific effects of ginseng against diabetes and atherosclerosis is often explained by its action just PPAR receptors. Panaxosidy increase the expression of PPAR-γ mRNA and other proteins PPAR-γ pathway (adiponectin, IRS-1, adipocyte protein 2 etc.) It was shown in vitro ( Gao2013grr for ginsenoside Re ) and clinically ( Ni2010sgp for mixture ginsenoside Rg1 and Rb 1 , measuring the effect on monocytes in diabetic patients 122). Similar studies are now dozens and effect on PPAR receptors, in addition to the aforementioned panaxosidů also found in ginsenoside Rf ( Lee2006grc , PPAR-α in mice), ginseng aglycon protopanaxatriol ( Han2006g2p ) and ginsenoside Rg 3 ( Han2006g2p ). Interestingly, chiral enantiomers ginsenoside Rg3 not active on the PPAR-γ receptor as well Epimer 20 (S) -rg 3 has more than 10 times greater affinity than the 20 (R) 3 -rg ( Kwok2012sg2 ).
Another natural medicament
All known traditionally adaptogens (or newly observed) effect against diabetes is suspected possibility to act just on the PPAR receptors. It is the case for Šišák Baikal (traditional against diabetes), the flavonoid vogonin effect on PPARα ( Zhang2015wso ) and also for bitter balsam apple, the oil acts on the gamma ( Khan2007bgm ). Systematic exploration of large quantities of medicinal plants ( Rozema2012sec ) to investigate the effect on PPAR-α and PPAR-γ receptors in albizzia pink (Albizia julibrissin) arisémy (Arisaema sp.), Jarva medicines (Cnidium monnieri) pinelie trifoliate (Pinellia ternata) and Tribulus natural , the effect only to the PPAR-α in lily (Lilium sp.) and lofatera (Lophatherum gracile).