PPAR receptors are gene expression regulators that play a key role in glucose and lipid metabolism.
The abbreviation PPAR means peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ( peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ). Despite the complex name, PPAR receptors are common, unusual, abundant in all cells. They have the everyday tasks of regulating sugar and fat metabolism. They affect the effectiveness of insulin, and their agonists (thiazolidinediones) are used against diabetes.
Three subtypes encoded by three different genes: PPARα, PPARβ and PPARγ, are distinguished for PPAR receptors.
Adaptogens acting on PPAR receptors
In the context of adaptogens, PPAR receptors are interesting because they play a role in the development of civilization diseases against which adaptogens act ( diabetes , obesity , atherosclerosis , metabolic syndrome, etc.). PPAR receptors are the site of action of some active ingredients of adaptogens and medicinal plants.
The effect of ginseng on PPAR receptors
The effects of ginseng on PPAR receptors have been paying attention since the early 21st century ( Chung2001cbw , Yoon2003ppr ). Its specific effects against diabetes and atherosclerosis are often explained by its effects on PPAR receptors. Panaxosides increase the expression of PPAR-γ mRNA and other PPAR-γ pathways (adiponectin, IRS-1, adipocyte protein 2 , etc.) This has been demonstrated in vitro ( Gao2013grr for ginsenoside Re ) and clinically ( Ni2010sgp for ginsenoside Rg 1 and Rb 1 , measurements were effect on monocytes in 122 diabetic patients). Similar trials have now been reported , and PPAR receptor activity, in addition to the above panaxosides, was found in ginsenoside Rf ( Lee2006grc , PPAR-α in mice), protopanaxatriol ginkgo aglycone ( Han2006g2p ) and ginsenoside Rg3 ( Han2006g2p ). Interestingly, the chiral enantiomers of ginsenoside Rg3 do not act on the PPAR-γ receptor as well: Epimer 20 (S) -Rg3 has more than 10 × greater affinity than 20 (R) -Rg3 ( Kwok2012sg2 ).
The glossy gloss effect on PPAR receptors
Lanostean gloss gloss gloss triterpenoids act on PPAR-γ receptors and have a positive effect on metabolic syndrome ( Lee2010elt , Shimojo2011egl , Thyagarajansahu2011rmb ).
Other natural drugs acting on PPAR receptors
All adaptogens with a traditionally known (or newly diagnosed) anti-diabetic effect are suspected of being able to act on PPAR receptors. This is the case with the Bajkalic Shihash (traditional anti-diabetes), whose flavonoid vogonin acts on PPARα ( Zhang2015wso ) and also on bitter Momordia , whose oil acts on PPARγ ( Khan2007bgm ) . Systematic Investigation of Multiple Medicinal Plants ( Rozema2012sec ) revealed an effect on PPAR-α and PPARγ receptors in Albisia julibrissin , Arisaema sp., Cnidium monnieri , Pinellia ternata ( Lilium sp.) and lofatera ( Lophatherum gracile ). The effect of PPAR- ?