Fatigue, chronic fatigue syndrome
Under fatigue - as well as the stress - usually means mental fatigue (mental, subjective). U subjective fatigue are still physically able to continue the tiring activity, but we feel the urge to relax. Objective fatigue is often called physical exhaustion - is affected, in principle, unable to continue tiring activity due to depletion of reserves (energy, neurotransmitters ...) Fatigue Syndrome is a chronic condition that manifests as apathy (lethargy), sleepiness and lack of energy.
Fatigue related to stress, and is the result of expression of increased load. Increased stress (allostatic load) generally leads to greater fatigue. From the hormonal perspective, but the stress and fatigue big difference. In the so-called stress occurs. Generalized adaptation syndrome , associated with an outpouring of catecholamines (adrenaline, noradrenaline) and glucocorticoids (cortisol). In contrast, the fatigue (fatigue syndrome) rather correlates with immune molecules , such as interleukin 1 and interleukin sixth Fatigue has a relationship to inflammation and fever, which can be easily observed with short (muscle) fatigue: After physical exertion (sport, manual labor ) occur in stressed muscles to tear a part of the muscle fiber. This leads to slight inflammatory reaction (muscle fever) . Immune molecules associated with inflammation that induce a mild fever and muscle fatigue. According to the scope strained muscle groups such inflammatory signaling molecules and induce an overall feeling of fatigue and sleepiness. There are many types of pain, but the pain that is associated with muscle fatigue is a type that from her very pleasantly ulevíme rest, relaxation and even stretching (stretching) or massage loaded muscle groups - short Fatigue Syndrome us therefore leads to optimal behavior for regeneration tired muscles. Just as the muscles recover enough to inflammation subsides, together with a decrease in inflammatory signaling molecules disappear and fatigue.
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
The permanent fatigue symptoms occurs when for some reason there is a long-term rise in the levels of interleukins (IL-1, IL-6, IL-10 and others) in the plasma. The reason may be an infectious disease (hidden) or immune disorder (autoimmunity) . The main symptom of chronic fatigue syndrome, lethargy - sleepiness, lack of energy to do anything except rest. This is advantageous in infectious diseases, because the patient who thrifty faster recovery. Then he says but fatigue syndrome, but the behavior of the patient. Name of chronic fatigue syndrome is more or less reserved for cases where the cause is hidden.
Adaptogens have from the definition of anti-stress effect and hence is given by their efficacy against fatigue. Ginseng is an indication of fatigue and exhaustion TCM used since time immemorial. Modern research on ginseng as a remedy against fatigue dates from the 60s and gradually expanding to other potential natural adaptogens. On the example of fatigue can clearly demonstrate the importance of pharmacological concept adaptogen - for example, such a cocaine while also counteracts fatigue (and very efficiently as it confirmed kokainista Sigmund Freud), but it is an adaptogen because (roughly speaking) the total damage.
The effectiveness of ginseng and ginsenosides Rg 1
If you omit the thousand-year tradition of TCM , and we will focus only on scientific resources, then ginseng as a remedy against fatigue was around the same time as described in Chinese publications ( Tsung1964tsf , Wang1983sae ) and the group around Lazareva and Brekhmann ( Brekhman1969pig ), who also identified another plant with those effects, Siberian Ginseng. Ginseng and especially ginsenoside Rg 1 was as a remedy against fatigue confirmed Japanese battery of tests on mice ( Saito1974epg ), the author knows well and cites previous Soviet investigations. This work, published in the famous Tokyo University originates from the golden age of scientific medicine and for me personally is the ultimate confirmation of the effectiveness of this adaptogen against fatigue, even if I had not read anything else and himself at their experience with ginseng stubbornly suspected of bias. The research but of course continued, partly towards specific applications of ginseng for mental and physical fatigue and also to identify other adaptogens with anti-fatigue.
Specific interactions of physical and mental stress
The effectiveness on the mental performance of ginseng was found to be better than piracetam , which is often referred to as a nootropic ( Banerjee1982aap ). Experiments similar to those of the 60s were reproduced in the 21st century ( Kaneko2004pme ) - ginseng would be found to be effective in physical activity (work stress) , cold stress and infectious load (flu).
Clinical interest is the effect of ginseng for chronic fatigue. According Ellis2002epg , 58% of probands taking ginseng (but only 18% of probands usage placebo) reported an improved sense of health (measured by questionnaire). Clinical studies Kim2013aep on 90 patients suffering from chronic fatigue found in ginseng extract efficacy against chronic fatigue above placebo, but not to a statistically significant level. I noted that a daily dose in the study Kim2013aep was quite low, 1 gram or 2 grams a day.
Other adaptogens with effect against fatigue
Just briefly several known plants with activity against fatigue:
- Siberian Ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus): Deyama2001cpe , Cicero2004esg , Huang2011bfa , Panossian2009eea ;
- Rhodiola rosea (Rhodiola rosea): Chan2012pgr , Kelly2001rrp ;
- Schizandra Chinese (Schisanra chinensis): Chan2012pgr , Panossian2009eea ;
- gumojilm elm (Eucommia ulmoides) Deyama2001cpe ;
- breakpoint desert (Cistanche deserticola) Wang2012cdm )
- and others, including other naturally ginseng genus Panax, such as: