Natural adaptogens are phyto complexes - specific mixtures of plant substances. Fulfilling the definition of adaptogen , which requires adaptogens to act on physiological parameters neutral, medicinal plants often have the content of the adverse active substances. A dual, contradictory effect on multiple physiological parameters has also the model adaptogen ginseng .
Double effect of ginseng on vascular growth
The growth of blood vessels, more precisely the growth of blood capillaries , is a process that is constantly taking place in the body. Existing capillaries are damaged and clogged, and new capillaries are added to their function, which grows as needed in the tissue. Capillary growth plays a key role in wound healing and regeneration , where it is desirable , but also in tumor growth where capillary growth is undesirable.
Ginseng panaxosides include those that improve capillary growth and thus promote regeneration. Other panaxosides, however, block vascular growth and are suitable for supportive treatment of cancer .
Panaxoside-improving capillary growth is ginsenoside Rg1 acting on the glucocorticoid receptor ( Cheung2011gia , Sengupta2004may ). Capillary growth also improves ginsenoside Rg3, with its S epimer acting more than its R epimer ( Kwok2012sg2 ). In contrast, ginsenoside Rb1 and compound K block capillary blocking ( Sengupta2004may ). For this reason, Chinese doctors use in some indications not a mixed ginseng extract but a standardized mixture of particular panaxosides.
Two effects of ginseng on stress
Ginseng has a double effect on the stress (hypothalamic-pituitary) axis, which acts to stabilize blood cortisol levels ( Kim2003egs and others). Ginsenoside Rb 1 in mice reduces aggression, while Rg 1 slightly increases it. Total ginseng extract aggressive mice decreases ( Yoshimura1988ace ).
Double action of ginseng on NO synthase
Ginseng has opposite effects on 2 different types of nitric oxide synthase (NO) , which are inflammatory (NO) synthase 2 (NOS2) and endothelial NO synthase 3 (NOS3). NOS2 is involved in inflammation and is used in a biochemical cascade that produces peroxides and superoxides to kill bacteria. NOS3 produces NO in blood vessels as a signal molecule that reduces blood pressure and also improves erection . Ginseng has a suppressive effect on NOS2 but also enhances NOS3 gene expression.
Double effect of ginseng on inflammation
Several panaxosides have anti-inflammatory effects ( Park1996gri , Park2003aag , Oh2004sog , Oh2004sog , Bae2006grr ). Anti-inflammatory panaxosides alleviate pain and soothe microglia and macrophages to reduce damage to autoimmune diseases, but also to heart and stroke. According to Lim2002aep, gingival polysaccharides have an adverse effect which significantly increase the activity of macrophages. The overall effect of ginseng is anti-inflammatory.
There are two basic types of immune responses . Type 1 is directed against an internal enemy - viruses and cancer cells. Type 2 is directed against an external enemy - bacteria and protozoa. The immune system decides at any moment which type of enemy to focus on. Rhinsenside ginsenoside Rh 1 turns attention to type 1 ( Yu2005pgd ), while ginsenosides F1 and Rg1 turn attention to type 2 ( Lee2004gre, Yu2005pgd ) immunity . The overall effect of ginseng sounds in favor of the Type 1 response ( Christensen2009gcb ).