Protection of brain cells (neurons)
Neuroprotective effect = protection of brain cells (neurons) from damage and death
Neuronal damage can be caused by stress, alcohol, drugs, or other toxins. Neuroprotective effects is generally understood soothing effect on microglia (which are modified macrophages residing in the CNS, serving neurons responsible for defense and brain clear dead cells).
It appears that excessive activation of microglia damages the brain. Mental stress , nerve toxins , autoimmune processes , stroke and other disease processes have in common being damage to the brain microglia activation. Microglia sensitive to brain damage and even mere mental overload. Microglia in the brain plays a role in immune and housekeeping . But situations such as stroke, hangover , or even mere mental stress of today's lifestyle with microglia activation can not adapt her do more harm than good. Now microglia is responsible for persistent headache hangover and in other situations.
Highlights of adaptogens include neuroprotective effect just
This effect has been extensively studied in model adaptogen ginseng ( Zhang2008pgg , Li2007peg , Wu2007deg , Lin2007gra , Liao2002neg ) and has been found in other adaptogens. In all these cases they have neuroprotective adaptogens type of ginseng chance to help.
Ginseng contains substances that have the ability to soothe microglia and therefore acts positively on hangover traumatic injury (injury, concussion), and the other aforementioned conditions. The method by which this achieved panaxosidy, also related to the immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effect of ginseng.
- Wu2007deg shows that gssd. Rb 2 , Rd , Rg 1 and Re have a strong inhibitory effect on the production of TNF-α activated microglia lipopolysaccharides. Gssd Rg 1 and Re additionally blocked and microglial production of NO. Confirmed by their inhibitory effect on the transcription factor NF-κΒ and other elements of the stress cascade microglia activation (MAPK1, MAPK3, MAPK8).
- In experiments on neuronal cultures demonstrated a protective effect limiting inflammatory microglia response and reduced production of NO and prostaglandin E2 induced by the addition of bacterial lipopolysaccharide ( Lin2007gra ).
- Pxsd. Rb 1 and Rg 1 have a protective effect on spinal neurons in vitro ( Liao2002neg ).
- Bae2006grr illustrates the protective effect of ginseng in ischemic stroke depressants gssd. Rg 3 and Rh 2 on the harmful activation of microglia. In mice, microglia activated by lipopolysaccharides or interferon-γ blocked the expression of Rh 2 inducible NO synthase (NOS2 gene) and NO production with IC 50 = 17μM preventing binding transcription factor AP-1 DNA. This has also restrictions on the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (PTGS2 gene) and the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β. Rh-2 also increased expression of inflammation braking IL-10 and facilitate the transcription factor CREB binding to DNA. On binding transcription factor NF-kB did not affect Rh 2. Gssd effect. Rg 3 was similar Rh 2, but much weaker.
- Gssd Rg 2 prevents neuronal death, protects memory and other brain functions on the model of ischemia / reperfusion ( Zhang2008pgg ), and in vitro protects neurons against glutamate insult ( Li2007peg ).
- Ginsenoside Rd prevent damage to dopaminergic neurons caused by the inflammatory activation of microglia by bacterial lipopolysaccharide. ( Lin2007gra )
- Ginsenoside Rg 3, which occurs primarily during the steaming ginseng to red ginseng, decreased expression of inflammatory cytokines in activated microglia and inhibited binding transcription factor NF-kB to the appropriate DNA binding site, leading to increased survival of neuronal cells in vitro. Ginsenoside Rg 3 also almost completely blocked the expression of NOS2 (iNOS) and increased expression of MSRA (macrophage scavenger receptor type A). ( Joo2008pin )
- Ginseng polysaccharides protects the brain from damage in experimental autoimmune mouse model ( Hwang2011app )
- Nie2006pep - ginseng panaxynol and panaxydol protect brain neurons subjected to chemical stress before dying.
Publication of the neuroprotective effect of polysaccharides goji came (at the time when I was intensely devoted to the topic), mostly from a single group of scientists at the University of Hong Kong, mainly from in vitro experiments. Pretreatment aqueous extract LBP protect neurons from rat cortex before Aβ toxicity (amyloid beta protein is emerging as a major component of plaques in brains of Alzheimer's disease ) ( Yu2005nea ). In one of the rare in vivo studies have examined the effect of LBP on glaucoma (glaucoma) caused by high intraocular pressure. Rats fed LBP extract showed significant slowing down of the retina ganglion neurons. Intraocular pressure has not changed ( Chan2007nel ). It is virtually certain that over time, the neuroprotective effects of wolfberry will pay more researchers, whereby the reader is referred to the primary source.
Other neuroprotective adaptogens
Neuroprotective effects were detected in many adaptogens and medicinal plants. For specific publications to warn:
- Recent reports adaptogens and medicinal plants with potential effect on spinal cord injury ( Zhang2016tet ) and parkinsonism ( Fu2015pna ) emphasize resveratrol, curcumin, tea tree polyphenols ligustrazin of Chinese lovage (Ligusticum chuanxiong) flavonoid quercetin present in vegetables and fruits, Pueraria lobed (Pueraria lobata ) and ginseng.
- Overview of plants potentially effective against Alzheimer's disease ( Hugel2015bfa ) mentions turmeric, sage červenokořennou (Salvia miltiorrhiza), ginseng, cinnamon, coriander, rosemary, sage and other mint family commonly used as a spice.
- Lingzhi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum) : specific studies focused on the protective effects on memory and hippocampal neurons ( Zhou2012nep , Aguirremoreno2011glr ) and dopaminergic neurons ( Ding2010gle ) which arises death of Parkinson's disease .
- Rhodiola rosea counteracted autoimmune brain damage ( Zhu2016saa ).
- Koptiš Chinese ( Zhang2009btb ) and other plants TCM.
- Baikal Skullcap has demonstrated significant neuroprotective effects in models of cerebral ischemia and stroke ( Gaire2014sbs ). Bajkalin Šišák protects against cognitive impairments in diabetes ( Ma2015bad ), and found a protective effect on hippocampal neurons ( Lim2016asb ).
Plant these effects must inevitably be much more than I can mention a document in this short paragraph. In addition, each year adding new reports on this subject, so I will have no choice but to once again refer to the latest information on primary sources. Note however that many neuroprotective agents come from the area of spices (turmeric, etc.) or regular food (resveratrol, quercetin). Allow me therefore to conclude this article to highlight the book "Spice and its healing effects" from the famous prof. Pavla Valíčka where the healing properties of spices documented systematically.