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Anticoagulant effects

Blood clotting is a natural mechanism by which the body stops bleeding when injuring blood vessels. However, advanced atherosclerosis causes pathological coagulation and formation of blood clots (thromboses) within the blood vessels.

Ginseng is a traditional anti-coagulant drug

From the point of view of TCM, ginseng (mainly in the form of red ginseng ) is a means against so-called "blood stasis". Total ginseng extract is used to prevent atherosclerosis and stroke . Purified and standardized panaxoside mixtures are also injected as a medicine for acute cardiac arrest .

Ginsenosides Rk 1 and Rg 5 block blood clotting 10-20 times stronger than aspirin

Red ginseng appears to inhibit blood clotting through the arachidonate, collagen and thrombin pathway ( Yun2001ekr ). The IC50 of these effects ranges between 600-800μg / ml ( Jin2007aaa , Yu2006aaa ). Ginsenoside Rk 1 strongly counteracts thrombosis following a pathway of arachidonic acid in the platelets ( Ju2012mia ).

According to Lee2009paa and Lee2010iag panaxosides have the following effective doses compared to reference aspirin :

  • Aggregation of arachidonate : As compared to aspirin (IC 50 = 63μM), ginsenosides Rk 1 and Rg 5 8-22x have a greater antithrombotic effect. Ginsenosides Rg 6 , F4 and Rk 3 have an IC 50 of 76 μM, 114 μM and 128 μM, respectively - their effective dose being 1.5 to 2 times higher than aspirin .
  • Platelet aggregation after thromboxane mimetic A2 : Ginsenosides Rg 6 , F4, Rk 3 and Rh 4 inhibit platelet aggregation with an IC 50 of 286μM, 87μM, 187μM and 119μM respectively - their effective dose is 2-4 times lower than that for aspirin 50 = 468 μM).
  • Aggregation of blood platelets after collagen and ADP (adenosine diphosphate) : None of the investigated ginsenosides had a significant effect.
  • S & amp ; R epimer of ginsenoside Rg3 was found to be free of anticoagulant effects. Acetylated forms of the aforementioned effective panaxosides (ginsenoside acetyl Rs 3 , acetyl Rs 4 and acetyl R 5 5 ) were also ineffective.

| 19.1.2009