Blood clotting is a natural mechanism by which the body stops bleeding when injuring vessel damage. However, advanced atherosclerosis causes pathological coagulation and formation of blood clots (thromboses) within the blood vessels.
Thrombosis is the main mechanism of heart and stroke . Anticoagulant medications are given just as a prevention and treatment of ischemia and stroke. Along with existing anticoagulant drugs ( aspirin , warfarin ...), some ginseng panaxosides are also included.
Ginseng is a traditional anti-coagulant drug
From the point of view of TCM, ginseng (mainly in the form of red ginseng ) is a remedy against so-called "stasis of blood". Total ginseng extract is used to prevent atherosclerosis and stroke . Purified and standardized panaxoside blends are also injected as a medicine for acute heart stroke .
Ginsenosides Rk 1 and Rg 5 block blood clotting 10-20 times stronger than aspirin
Red ginseng appears to inhibit blood clotting through the arachidonate, collagen and thrombin pathway ( Yun2001ekr ). IC 50 of these effects ranged between 600-800μg / ml ( Jin2007aaa , Yu2006aaa ). Ginsenoside Rk 1 strongly counteracts thrombosis following a pathway of arachidonic acid in the platelets ( Ju2012mia ).
- Aggregation of arachidonate : As compared to aspirin (IC 50 = 63μM), ginsenosides Rk 1 and Rg 5 8-22x have a greater antithrombotic effect. Ginsenosides Rg 6 , F4 and Rk 3 have an IC50 of 76 μM, 114 μM and 128 μM, their effective dose being 1.5 to 2 times higher than aspirin.
- Platelet aggregation after thromboxane A2 : Ginsenosides Rg 6 , F4, Rk 3 and Rh 4 inhibit platelet aggregation with an IC 50 of 286μM, 87μM, 187μM and 119μM respectively - their effective dose is 2-4 times lower than that for aspirin 50 = 468 μM).
- Aggregation of platelets after collagen and ADP (adenosine diphosphate) : None of the investigated ginsenosides had a significant effect.
- The S and R epimer of ginsenoside Rg 3 was found to be free of anticoagulant effects. Acetylated forms of the aforementioned effective panaxosides (ginsenoside acetyl Rs 3 , acetyl Rs 4 and acetyl R 5 5 ) were also ineffective.