Overweight or obesity is more of lifestyle diseases, which have a complex relationship with all the physiological systems of the body. Even for her, there is a separate sub-discipline of internal medicine - obesitology. For basic information about the current view of medicine for obesity I'd like to invite virtually MD. Todd Burstaina, a top American internist who formulated new rules for patients struggling with being overweight . These are knowledgeable and rationally considering physician. Anyone struggling with obesity or just trying to lose a few pounds for health and cosmetic reasons would do well to Burstainovy rules will read and will abide by them. I would like to contribute to the short list of adaptogens that can be helpful in reducing diet.
Principles of sustainable weight reduction
Our body weight is the result of the equation, where one side of the energy intake from food and on the other hand is the movement of energy expenditure, maintaining body temperature and metabolic consumption of internal organs. Although food intake and energy expenditure, we have ostensibly under the control of our will, in fact, is watching over us autonomic nervous system, which has enforcement powers stronger than the will. Control center of the autonomic system is the hypothalamus. Is not under voluntary control and is careful about it, we always have sufficient energy supplies in case of famine, severe injuries in the hunt for the mammoth, or stay in the contemporary equivalent concentration camp. Hypothalamus us unbearable feeling of hunger, forcing eat whatever our dietary goals. Hunger can be for a limited period of time (days to weeks) to resist, but in the long term has the upper hand hypothalamus - has a motivational circuits on the power of drug addiction. Increments vegetative system is also unnatural for humans. When we do, we risk a severe mental damage as anorexia nervosa, which is significantly worse than the slight overweight. What we therefore remain possibilities? Burstainova diet is all that we are trying to negotiate with the hypothalamus. By what you eat, your whole lifestyle to try to convince the autonomic system that we have a stable source of food and to exercise their livelihoods need light and agile body. Our vegetative system is not stupid and is on our side, but does not trust our intellect. When he vividly demonstrate that the above conditions are true, we have a chance to achieve lasting weight loss. We can not yet put unrealistic goals. Like our hypothalamus caters to our argument that we no longer live in the Ice Age, and our frontal brain must have to respect the hypothalamus. When your hypothalamus dig in an effort to lose weight more than he deemed admissible lose his confidence and hunger nepotlačitelného then rid of for a long time.
Regulation of hunger and satiety, and its impact on reducing diet
Feelings of hunger and satiety generated by the hypothalamus have their hormonal correlates. These are ghrelin, the hunger hormone leptin, a hormone of satiety. Ghrelin is produced by the tissue of the stomach when the latter is empty. (It is a very ancient structural design that the body is hungry, even as intellectual creatures such as people still sick.) Leptin is produced by fat tissue, the more so the more we are fatter. Ghrelin is therefore responsible for it, we did not go with an empty stomach and leptin for us to become fat too. These signals, however, are merely a reference whose precise interpretation is hypothalamus. When the hypothalamus decides that we need to gain weight 10 kg, leptin signals will stubbornly ignore until it reaches her. In addition to the unbearable hunger has hypothalamus available to other law enforcement agents: Hungry man decreases metabolism becomes less adventurous, more zimomřivým and begins to feel unexplained fatigue and muscle weakness apparent that it will discourage energy waste. Todd Burstain analyzes in detail the various neural and hormonal pathways that lead hypothalamus stressed individuals to decide that it's time to get fat. Summary Burstainovy method, however, is such that you lose weight stomach fed so as to maximally suppress ghrelin synthesis and avoid stress, the hypothalamus did not give us reason to doubt the stability of our living situation. Next, we try to maximize the production of leptin regular 8-hour sleep, which also contributes to the synthesis of the hormone. Drink plenty of fluids to quell the thirst and stress during intermittent or other high-intensity exercise hypothalamus we know that our livelihood requires agility. Just as there are people with silly forebrain we have we unlucky with the stupid or ill hypothalamus. Agreement with the hypothalamus regarding weights can not be guaranteed, but the pursuit of it is the best thing you can do.
The role of medicinal plants in reducing diet
There are a number of plant species with potential effect against obesity. Their effect is only supportive. Although helping herbs, you have to behave in the diet as carefully as if you were to ever rely herbs. From the perspective of the hypothalamus is to maintain fat stores a matter of life and death. Hypothalamic center homeostasis is too smart to be fooled give artificial sweetener or some herbs. Miraculous Slimming adaptogens generally do not exist because they are overweight actually, in most cases, our autonomic system (rightly or wrongly) perceived as healthy. This does not mean that herbs for weight loss do not exist, only from them can not expect miracles. The main method of treatment is to modify our behavior and diet.
The realm of weight loss and good appearance is particularly good breeding ground for charlatans - the appearance is very important for people. For the same reason I express on herbs for weight loss cautiously. I do not want to raise false hopes. I emphasize that maintaining normal weight in a society full of stress and fructose syrup is for people prone to obesity lifelong task that can not be managed without exercise, determination and counting kilojouleů.
Hunger and satiety is influenced not only the balance of ghrelin (hunger hormone) and leptin (satiety hormone), as well as other hormones monitorujícími nutritional value of food. The satiety contributes mainly insulin (monitors carbohydrates), to a lesser extent cholecystokinin (monitors fats) and other hormones digestive system indicating the quality of fats and proteins eaten. Some plants have the ability to cause these hormonal mechanisms. Those plants that increase the level or effect of insulin, tend to have a combined effect against obesity and diabetes . These include balsam apple bitter (Momordica charantia) , which contains p-insulin (vegetable peptide analogous to the animal insulin), a large number of pro-vitamin C and other specific substance ( Raman1996app , Habicht2014mct ). Despite some doubts about its effectiveness ( Kasbia2009nea ) consider it to be a very healthy vegetables, and medicinal plants, which are in the tropics (including Taiwan), traditionally in large amounts it. Other léčivkám this type could include Ayurvedic Salacia reticulata ( Shimada2014srh ) from the family jesencovitých (Celastraceae), tropical tree Lagerstroemia speciosa (growing and Taiwan) with its antidiabetic acid korozolovou and Cissus quadrangularis, about which he writes Zdenek Navratilova Web Dr . Patocka .
Plants containing caffeine and other thermogenic substances
On the lists of herbs recommended in reducing diet consists of a special chapter plants containing caffeine. Caffeine actually at least in the short term, increases metabolic rate and improves alertness and attention. Caffeine problem is however that with it people often předávkovávají. Kofeinismus is probably the only chemical dependency, which I myself suffer. That's why I soar doubt whether the caffeine keeps its usefulness and long term, ie. After the adenosine receptors that act, to desensitize. Caffeine is found in a large number of plants - not only in lemonades, energy drinks, and my favorite coffee. Apart from coffee (Coffea) caffeine occurs under the name Protein in tea plant (Camellia sinensis), entitled guaranin in guarana (Paullinia cupana), and even holly, America called Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguariensis), the caffeine in the name of the larger terminological confusion called matein. From the leaves of holly members of indigenous cultures brewed stimulant tea ( Bracesco2011rai ). Sweet fruits ostrolisté European holly (Ilex aquifolium), author of the article finds quite tasty, their effects can not comment yet because there nenasbíral enough for continuous consumption. Sweet and delicious author's opinion as well as red skin of the coffee, in which coffee beans are included as seeds. For basically considered tasty little bitter tea leaves, which are often praised for their antioxidant polyphenols ( Wierzejska2014thr ). Like George Bacon , the author considers the tasting plant as an important part of holistic experiences biologist.
For thermogenic substances must be mentioned L-carnitine, which is offered under the wonderful name "fat burner". Carnitine, as the name suggests, is found in meat plants is almost absent. Without getting harassed with searches, I would ask: How is it that carnitine, a molecule the body's own, should orally miracles against overweight? Dietetics area is home to all superstitions and competing camps. For example, I met with the proponents of the so-called. Paleo diet with a high proportion of meat, who even claims that cereal products are harmful and cause obesity . Their argument is very convincing , but for some strange reason, I figure vegans connects with Mohandas Gandhi, while meat and sausage I associate with the character type, Darek Vostřel. Much easier for me to evaluate the scientific diet, the authors fortunately emotionally tuned into disputes they bear. Although I have been promoting Burstainovu diet, which I consider a good basis for the reduction of dietetics , I do not consider it incompatible even with historically important Atkins diet , the Paleo diet that appears to be based. But back to herbs.
In connection with weight loss often mentioned "Garcinia cambogia" or Cambodian mangosteen (Garcinia gummi-gutta, Garcinia cambogia incorrectly) hydroxycitric acid which supposedly reduces appetite ( Preuss2004ose ). Because of the tropical fruit mangosteen family I have only the best sensory experience, I do not believe it would be harmful, as it sometimes accuses ( Melendezrosado2015ahi and other publications, that I do not want dohledávat). For the same reasons too but I do not believe that someone would Garcinia really help you lose weight. The genus Garcinia is simply outstanding small genus of tropical fruit, we should demand a fresh, rather than capsules. Eating Garcinia capsules is the same sin as we ate strawberries in capsules.
Another thermogenic phytochemical capsaicin from chili peppers (Capsicum frutescens and other species of the genus Capsicum). Capsaicin is a thermogenic serves as a supplement for weight loss ( Stohs2012rhc ). Paprika is generally very healthy vegetables, and not just the economy, but also sweet. Sweet peppers can in my view be considered an adaptogen. Although capsaicin does not meet the definition of adaptogen, but I think that capsaicin in chili is not the most important thing. People who are overweight and interest capsaicin recommend his income to ensure in its natural form by eating fresh or dried chilli peppers.
I will not (though I might) write about other effective thermogenic substances which are ephedrine from ephedra (Ephedra) and coleus forskolin of chins (Plectranthus barbatus, incorrectly Coleus forskohlii), which, like capsaicin is outside the scope of adaptogens. I also (though I might) mention SSRI antidepressants, phenmetrazine and cocaine, from which, after all, lose weight. Consecrated comment to this type of medication you give Dr. Burstain or other good practices of scientific medicine.
Peel of citrus fruits
Citrus rind in dietetics has long been used against obesity ( Nakajima2016bea , Gamboagomez2015pwp ). The citruses include lemons, oranges, grapefruit, mandarin, kumquat and others. Citrus fruit contains active flavonoids (hesperidin, eriocitrin, naringenin, naringin, neohesperidin, neoeriocitrin) thermogenic alkaloid synephrine ( Stohs2012rhc ) thermogenic monoterpene d-limonene ( Tan2016mni ) and other substances. Somewhere I read that supposedly limonene acts on the same path as the caffeine, but the reference I forget. The effective portion is only citrus pericarp (rind, husk), not flesh full of fructose or orange or grapefruit juice from a box. (A or pericarp not work without regular weighing.)
Effective practically all are commonly available citruses: grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi, see e.g. Gamboagomez2014cos ) and hybrids thereof, e.g. Citrus × aurantium ( Verpeut2013car ), lemons (lemon right, Citrus limon, see e.g. Fukuchi2008lps ), oranges (lemon orange, Citrus sinensis x, see e.g. Cardile2015cem ) and tangerine (lemon mandarin, Citrus reticulata, see e.g. Guo2016pot ).
Even more efficient are specially bred for Asian skin of citrus fruit: citron citron (Citrus medica, Peng2009isb , Menichini2015cmc ), mandarin unšiu (unšiu lemon, Citrus unshiu, Lim2015bcu ) and my favorite, kumquat ( Tan2014efm ). Big citron fruit called Buddha's hand, no flesh. Cedar is formed only pericarp, which has finger-like protrusions due to a high proportion of yellow (flavedo). They eat for fructose but for health.
The word kumquat to refer to two kinds of very interesting citrus fruit about the size of plums near the wild ancestor of citrus. Round kumquat (Japanese lemon, Citrus japonica) has a thin skin and juicy pulp sour taste particularly pronounced. Oval kumquat (pearl lemon, Citrus margarita, lemon or oval, Citrus obovata), by contrast, has no flesh at all - is all made up of highly aromatic pericarp. Oval kumquat is my favorite citrus fruit consumed due to the pericarp. In my opinion it is tastier than the citron and still has a higher proportion of yellow. Not surprise me that according to the database, Dr. Duke has an oval kumquat plants among the highest content of limonene.
Citrus peel intended for human consumption must be chemically treated. Virtually all citrus on our shelves are sprayed biphenyls and thiabendazole, poisons oily nature that can not be washed off the bark . In subtropical and tropical countries are chemically untreated citrus torn from trees (beware - the overpopulated Asia, virtually every tree particular owner with the demands of crops), in Bohemia, you have to buy so-called limes. Organic, see, for example, appropriate macro menu .
Fats and oils
Burstain Atkins also agree that a diet must eat enough fat. Already bigger question is what specific fats and oils should be chosen. Intuition says that those which are a source of abundant amounts of essential fatty acids and vitamins. It is not clear to me if there oilseeds specifically contributing to weight loss. They say it about Indian sesame (Sesamum indicum, Stohs2016rns ) and fruits, peanuts (Arachis hypogea, Gamboagomez2015pwp ), or peanuts, but such a claim would have to apply to many other oils. Fats and oils are also highly energetic and easy to overdose. Even the healthiest of oils safely get fat, if you consume it in excessive quantities.
Lately overly publicized coconut oil in my opinion, does not stand out above other oils (rapeseed, sunflower, sesame, olive ...) and is specifically effective against obesity. Coconut oil has two major advantages: high resistance to burning and low purchase price. Resistance has blown due to low content of unsaturated fatty acids. Low price again thanks to inexpensive coconut nuts in the tropics. Copra, from which coconut oil is pressed, is considered inferior product after coconut milk. In India, coconut oil is one of the cheapest fats. ( The notorious palm oil , however, is even cheaper!) Sales cheaply bought coconut oil as a luxury food carries a high margin, on which the campaign goes. Its low content of unsaturated fatty acids is dietary advantages. The taste of coconut I like, but even more my taste vegetable oils high in unsaturated fatty acids (ranked in descending order: sesame, olive, sunflower) and peanuts, whose oil (excluding cashew nuts) are also mostly unsaturated (ranked in descending order: Lískovec, pistachios, pine nuts, almonds, peanuts, walnuts). Walnuts are so healthy that I should taste as good as Lískovec, but I guess I was there as a child ate too much. I'm still very tasty very healthy poppy, which I also consumed in large quantities. Slightly less I like flaxseed. Healthy oilseeds is otherwise very much and I know not all, much less that I was able to assess sensory. Very healthy avocado tastes good when it is soft. (Recall that the flesh of avocado contains 14% healthy fat). From cheap oil without the strong taste is said to be healthy soybean oil, rapeseed and much more (tea tree, flaxseed, grape ...) From animal fats my tastes best goose and duck fat, although I consumption of poultry had already abandoned. It also tastes very good quality butter (not the cheapest in the shop), while my little tastes very healthy fish oils in addition to cod liver oil. However, fish soup from healthy oily fish consider medication for pain and inflammation. Healthy fats are also reptilian (snakes in Taiwan consume as medicine, crocodiles are a delicacy in China, turtle soup is popular in our country) and can (remember that birds are essentially dinosaurs disguise). Reptilian fats consider healing, but I do not recommend it because of the respect and protection of reptiles in front of factory farming. Chicken soup, moreover, before the era velkodrůbežáren also considered a cure.
Small explanation: Oils and fats are so complex dietary theme that your own sense of taste considered a better guide than long search, I often performed. The complexity of dietary fat issue is evidenced by the fact that the assessment of the quality of the fat eaten is used in our autonomic system, at least three different auxiliary satiety hormones. Yes, I ω-3, ω-6 and ω-9 unsaturated fatty acids know about the importance of fatty acids with a short chain in reducing diet ( Canfora2015sfa ) know about hypothetical efficacy of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, long chain (ineffective under Munro2013dsw ), but after all the research I consider the best overall guide to your own sense of taste.
The reduction can not ignore dietetics fiber. Fiber reduces the feeling of hunger ( Delargy1997eat ) and improves digestion. Fiber is ubiquitous, but there are several kinds of it. The insoluble fiber include cellulose, which can be found in all the woody parts of plants. The optimum fiber content are vegetables wild type - the dandelion, wild lettuce, wild cabbages, nettle etc. Insoluble fiber is also chitin (mykochitin), the main constituent of fungal tissue. The soluble fiber includes indigestible substance gelatinous and gelled consistency - agar, and gelatin substances rubber character located e.g. in the shells of the seeds of certain plants. The popular sources of fiber include bran cereal, bran swelling of the psyllium (Plantago ovata, Turnbull1995epo ), swelling Salvia hispanica seeds (Salvia hispanica, or chia, Timilsena2016mfc ), seaweed full of soluble fiber type agar ...
The two basic types of fiber (soluble and insoluble), I would like to logically added a third type - fiber grainy. Grained fiber I would describe as insoluble fiber grainy consistency which helps the digestive system be ground food like the sand in the gizzard of birds. The coarse fiber include hard seeds of small berries consumed whole (blueberries, currants, briar, hawthorn ...) and other coarse woody parts of plants. Sand and gravel people consume, but in TCM and other traditional systems can be found that is to be eaten prescribed inorganic clays. Mineral TCM drugs to systematically fiber is not, although they can contribute to the digestion of insoluble granular component.
Ginseng is beneficial for obesity, but it is not a means to weight loss. I say this despite several studies who claims that ginseng helps you lose weight ( Mollah2009aew , Hwang2009aeg , Gu2013gra , Kim2011aeo ). In my opinion, ginseng as an adaptogen no mass reduction in the job description. For weakened and malnourished ginseng improves appetite and helps to gain weight. Weakness and loss of appetite are among the TCM indications of ginseng. Specifically ginsenoside Rb 1 stimulates adipogenesis Chan2012gpa and induces the expression of collagen I Kwok2012gri . Ginseng is beneficial in reducing diet for other reasons:
- Ginseng is effective against obesity and diabetes effect on PPAR nuclear receptors, which I wrote a separate page .
- Ginseng reduces stress and chronic pain . According to Dr. Burstaina the stress and pain, the main risk factors in weight loss which we must avoid.
Its effect against inflammation ginseng improves recovery after sports activities, which are to lose weight, we must unconditionally pay. Ginseng reduces the level of inflammatory factors TNF and IL-6, and thus reduces harmful obesity. Obesity is actually behaves as opposed to nicotine. Nicotine suppresses the appetite, but it is undesirable. Ginseng can appetite and improve, but obese desirable. It must not be taken only by those obese patients who have individual reasons of increased appetite.
Using other adaptogens in weight loss
It would be against the principle of adaptogenic effects deviate from the state body that our autonomic system is deemed healthy - albeit a secular fashion can be different. Adaptogens are therefore not used directly to weight loss, but usually in combination with thermogenic and appetite suppressant herbs to balance their aktivizujícího and sometimes hypertensive effect . This is the case of caffeine, citrus products, ephedra (i.e. ephedrine), etc., which are combined with the true adaptogens - Rhodiola rosea (e.g. Verpeut2013car ) basil sacred (e.g. Gamboagomez2014cos ), ginseng, Notoginseng etc. It seems that Rhodiola It has potential against fat accumulation ( Lee2011ria ).
Regarding the model adaptogenic mushroom lingzhi mushroom , her admirers among scientists say that it is suitable even for obesity and diabetes ( Seto2009nhe , Chang2015glr , Thyagarajansahu2011rmb ). Reishi has extensive immunomodulatory effect ( Xu2011glp ) which, although it mechanistically understand, but I suppose Reishi actually reduces toxicity thickness (cf. eg. The conclusions of the study Ko2008ats ), although the actual reduction in body weight will not help.
With weight loss, in my opinion, can not help delicious fruit pomegranate (Punica granatum), tasty drinks from Aloe vera, or hruškovce přelahodného fruits or avocado (Persea americana) full of healthy vegetable fat, although potentially effective indicates Gamboagomez2015pwp . Already more interesting to me falls (from the same report) the possibility of the effectiveness of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), and peanuts (Arachis hypogea), which is however not obese overeat. Overview Stohs2016rns to this category of accessories slimmers also adds sesame (Sesamum indicum) and oil from moringa oleifera (Moringa oleifera) .
Another recommended adaptogens of the above reports, Sudanese hibiscus (Hibiscus sabdariffa), St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), of which she leaf and root. Hibiscus Sudanese due healing, highly acidic fruits commonly cultivated throughout the tropics (including Taiwan), no problem to get in TCM stores. In TCM mixtures against obesity occurs as červenokořenná sage (Salvia miltiorrhiza, Su2015smt ). Its effectiveness, I am unable to comment, but the whole genus Salvia including our sage (Salvia officinalis) I highly recommend.